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(1) The conversion of surplus value into capital, that is, the utilization of surplus value for the expansion of capitalist production. The capitalized surplus value forms a fund of capital accumulation that, like capital, is divided in two parts: the additional constant capital, used for the acquisition of additional means of production, and the additional variable capital, used for buying additional labor power.

(2) The process of the formation of fictitious capital. In bourgeois society, each regularly recurrent income (such as ground rent or dividends) is capitalized: it is calculated at the average loan interest rate as if it were income from capital in the form of a loan at this interest rate. Each unearned income received by virtue of the ownership of securities is considered as interest from a certain capital, which in reality does not exist (imaginary capital). The securities issued (shares, bonds of corporations or the state) become capital and bear interest. The increase in the rates of the shares (capitalized dividends), particularly in the period of cyclic upsurge, leads to the accumulation of fictitious capital, which qualitatively and quantitatively differs from the accumulation of real capital and which is determined by its own laws. At the same time, the excessive expansion of fictitious capital and the subsequent stock exchange collapse may seriously affect the process of capital accumulation. Since the whole mass of fictional capital represents a capitalized income, the change of its value does not depend on the value movement of the actual (real) capital that it represents. Capitalization means the further development of the fetishist character of capitalist relations of production, that is, a further development of the treatment of money and things as if they had a kind of magic power over men.


Marx, K. Kapital, vol. 3. K. Marx and F. Engels, Soch, 2nd ed., vol. 25, chs. 1–2, sees. 5–7.
Novye iavleniia v nakopenii kapitala v imperialisticheskikh stranakh. Moscow, 1967.


References in periodicals archive ?
On the other hand, a mixed case appeal is an appeal filed with the MSPB alleging that an appealable agency action was effected, in whole or in part, because of discrimination.
Any other construction surely would vitiate the authors' claim that the mixed case of provision is both efficient and equitable.
We begin by raising doubts about whether leading semantic accounts for indirect quotation and for pure (and direct) quotation can accommodate mixed cases in any non-ad hoc manner.
This Note concludes that, whether applying the common law reasoning of Supreme Court precedent or undertaking statutory interpretation on its own, a federal district court confronting a removed mixed case can and should assume discretion to remand nonbarred federal question claims when remanding claims barred by the Eleventh Amendment.
My mixed case arrived and the first bottle to feel the full force of my post-traumatic thirst was an astounding Spanish rose, Pireneos Merlot Cabernet 2006, pounds 6.
You can order a mixed case of wine or a case of one variety.
She said: "Having a mixed case load of family matters and conveyancing matters may at first seem to be a strange combination of legal work.
After talking with Jeff Conners (who, by the way, was very nice to speak with), I ordered a mixed case.
At the Wine Cellar you can order a selection of red, white and rose in the mixed case category, and search for your favourite brands.
The runners up in each category received a mixed case of Washington wine and a certificate of recognition:
There are various membership options to suit all budgets and new members will even receive a mixed case of National Trust beers.