Mixtec

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Mixtec

(mĭs`tĕk), Native American people of Oaxaca, Puebla, and part of Guerrero, SW Mexico, one of the most important groups in Mexico. Although the Mixtec codices constitute the largest collection of pre-Columbian manuscripts in existence, their origin is obscure. Before the arrival (700?) of the ToltecToltec
, ancient civilization of Mexico. The name in Nahuatl means "master builders." The Toltec formed a warrior aristocracy that gained ascendancy in the Valley of Mexico c.A.D. 900 after the fall of Teotihuacán.
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 on the central plateau, the Mixtec, possibly influenced by the OlmecOlmec
, term denoting the culture of ancient Mexican natives inhabiting the tropical coastal plain of the contemporary states of Veracruz and Tabasco, between 1300 and 400 B.C.
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, seem to have been the carriers of the advanced highland culture. Probably c.900 they began spreading southward, overrunning the valley of Oaxaca. By the 14th cent. they had overshadowed their rivals, the ZapotecZapotec
, indigenous people of Mexico, primarily in S Oaxaca and on the Isthmus of Tehuantepec. Little is known of the origin of the Zapotec. Unlike most native peoples of Middle America, they had no traditions or legends of migration, but believed themselves to have been born
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. The Mixtec produced some of the finest stone and metal work of ancient Mexico and also left elaborately carved wood and bone objects and painted polychrome pottery. Their influence on other cultures was strong and is especially noticeable in MitlaMitla
[Nahuatl,=abode of the dead], religious center of the Zapotec, near Oaxaca, SW Mexico. Probably built in the 13th cent., the buildings, unlike the pyramidal structures of most Middle American architecture, are low, horizontal masses enclosing the plazas.
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 and Monte AlbánMonte Albán
, ancient city, c.7 mi (11.3 km) from Oaxaca, SW Mexico, capital of the Zapotec. Monte Albán was built on an artificially leveled, rocky promontory above the Valley of Oaxaca.
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, Zapotec cities taken by the Mixtec during the long and bitter warfare among the tribes of the area. This struggle halted momentarily at the end of the 15th cent. in an alliance to defeat the AztecAztec
, Indian people dominating central Mexico at the time of the Spanish conquest. Their language belonged to the Nahuatlan subfamily of Uto-Aztecan languages. They arrived in the Valley of Mexico from the north toward the end of the 12th cent.
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, but the Zapotec soon teamed up with the Aztec and eventually made an alliance with the Spanish conquerors. The Mixtec carried on a bloody resistance until they were subjugated by the Spanish conquistador Pedro de AlvaradoAlvarado, Pedro de
, 1486–1541, Spanish conquistador. He went to Hispaniola (1510), sailed in the expedition (1518) of Juan de Grijalva, and was the chief lieutenant of Hernán Cortés in the conquest of Mexico.
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. There are perhaps 500,000 Mixtec-speaking people in Mexico today.

Bibliography

See A. K. Romney, The Mixtecans of Juxtlahuaca, Mexico (1966); R. Wauchope, ed., Handbook of Middle American Indians, Vol. VII: Ethnology (ed. by E. Z. Vogt, 1969).

Mixtec

 

an Indian people in Mexico, living predominantly in the states of Oaxaca, Guerrero, and Puebla and numbering approximately 200,000 (1970, estimate). The Mixtec language belongs to the Otomanguean language group. Catholicism is the official religion, but traditional beliefs have also been preserved. Prior to the arrival of the Spanish conquerors in the early 16th century, the Mixtec had attained a high level of culture. They were famous for working precious metals. Today their chief occupation is farming, and crafts, notably pottery and weaving, are also well developed.

REFERENCE

Khoroshaeva, I. F. “Sovremennoe indeiskoe naselenie Meksiki.” In Amerikanskii etnograficheskii sbornik, issue 1. Moscow, 1960. (Tr. In-ta etnografii AN SSSR, vol. 58.)
References in periodicals archive ?
Asi, en 1605, Diego de Paz, mixteco de Achiutla, otorgo un poder a "Pedro de la Torre; secretario de gobernacion de la ciudad de Mexico para que cobre cierto salario por haber servido como interprete que fue nombrado por Alonso Guerrero, juez de congregaciones en Chalcatongo y demas pueblos que estan cometidos en la Mixteca" (47) Lo cierto es que San Andres Xacala, Santa Cruz, Santa Lucia y Los Reyes se negaban a juntarse en San Miguel, pues alegaron que juntos no podian congregar a los 165 tributarios que tenia Chalcatongo de sus "sujetos de tierra fria", (48) es decir, de San Miguel, Santa Catarina, Santiago Mixtehuaca y San Andres Tiza, por lo que preferian congregarse a Almoloya.
En las escuelas se ven muchas diferencias sociales, los salones son muy importantes en ese sentido porque nos dejan ver que los ninos, los indigenas son sucios, no son de bano diario, uno los identifica por ese olor" (Profesor mixteco, Cuarto grado).
In his songs, Villegas talks about what it means for a young Mixteco like him to be an indigenous migrant in a globalized world (Univision 2012).
Flores' emphasis on dental care is echoed by four out of the five farm worker women - almost all undocumented - interviewed on a recent Saturday afternoon gathering at a local elementary school organized by the Oxnard-based Mixteco Indigena Community Organizing Project (MICOP).
Mixteco is an indigenous language spoken in the states of Puebla, Guerrero, and Oaxaca by 480,000 people (Instituto Nacional Indigenista, 2012).
El mixtequeno es una estirpe con divergencia interna de unos cincuenta siglos, que abarca cuatro lenguas distintas: el mixteco, cuicateco, amuzgo y trique.
Tambien introdujimos otras tres variables que toman un valor igual a uno cuando una lengua pertenece a una de las siguientes subregiones incluidas dentro de alguna de las seis macro-areas: Asia sudoriental (birmano, hmong njua, mandarin, meithei, tailandes y vietnamita), Mesoamerica (jacalteco, mixteco, otomi, rama, yaqui y zoque) y el Amazonas (apurina, barasano, canela-kraho, hixkaryana, piraha, sanuma, wari y yagua).
But Raymundo also speaks her native Triqui and is learning Mixteco, while Hilario speaks Mixteco and is studying French.
Sin embargo, para nuestros fines fue necesario caracterizar el concepto de problema considerando rasgos esenciales de las definiciones que reporta la literatura mencionada, pero asumiendo una acepcion flexible y realista respecto de las condiciones predominantes en el aula, que incorpora de alguna manera las particularidades del contexto mixteco.
Y murmuraras un canto mixteco que conmovera a la tierra y al cielo.
De acuerdo con el consulado de Mexico en esa ciudad, los indigenas que viven en Nueva York, Nueva Jersey y Connecticut dialogan en 14 lenguas, entre ellas el mixteco, el nahuatl, el zapoteco el triqui, el otomi y tlapaneco.