Melbourne

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Melbourne,

city (1990 pop. 59,646), Brevard co., E Fla., on Indian River (a lagoon); inc. 1888, consolidated with Eau Gallie 1969. It is a tourist and aerospace center near the Atlantic Ocean. The leading industries process and ship fruit, and manufacture electronic equipment and leisure craft. Since the development of Cape CanaveralCape Canaveral
, low, sandy promontory extending E into the Atlantic Ocean from a barrier island, E Fla., separated from Merritt Island by the Banana River, a lagoon; named (1963) Cape Kennedy in memory of President John F. Kennedy, it reverted to its original name in 1973.
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, the aerospace industry has bolstered Melbourne's economy and population. Florida Institute of Technology is in the city, and Patrick Air Force Base is nearby.

Melbourne,

city (1991 pop. 2,761,995), capital of Victoria, SE Australia, on Port Phillip Bay at the mouth of the Yarra River. Melbourne, Australia's second largest city, is a rail and air hub and financial and commercial center. Wool and raw and processed agricultural goods are exported. The city is heavily industrialized; industries include shipbuilding and the manufacture of farm machinery, textiles, and electrical goods. Included in the Melbourne urban agglomeration are many coastal resorts.

Settled in 1835, it was named (1837) for Lord MelbourneMelbourne, William Lamb, 2d Viscount
, 1779–1848, British statesman. He entered Parliament as a Whig in 1805, was (1827–28) chief secretary for Ireland, and entered (1828) the House of Lords on the death of
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, the British prime minister. From 1901 to 1927 the city was the seat of the Australian federal government. The population, once primarily British, has changed since World War II with immigration from E and S Europe and, more recently, Asia.

Melbourne has campuses of several universities, including the Univ. of Melbourne (1853), Monash Univ. (1958), and La Trobe Univ. (1964). Melbourne Technical College, the Australian Ballet School, the National Gallery of Victoria, the Melbourne Museum, and the galleries and theaters of the Victorian Arts Centre also are in the city. Melbourne is the seat of Roman Catholic and Anglican archbishops. Attractive parks, including the notable Royal Botanic Gardens and Melbourne Zoo; the bustling Queen Victoria Market; and the cultural and commercial Federation Square complex draw both tourists and residents. Melbourne Park is the site of tennis's Australian Open, the Melbourne Cup horse race is run annually at Flemington Racecourse, and the city hosts a Formula One Grand Prix race. Melbourne was the site of the 1956 summer Olympic games.

Melbourne

 

a city in the Commonwealth of Australia; capital of the state of Victoria. Located on the shore of Port Phillip Bay at the mouth of the Yarra River. Founded in the 1830’s, the city was named after the prime minister of Great Britain, Lord Melbourne. It is the largest city in the country after Sydney. In 1971 the population was 2,389,000 (suburbs included).

From the early 19th century until 1927, Melbourne developed as a business and financial as well as an administrative center. It was the capital of the Commonwealth of Australia from 1901 to 1927. After 1927 the city became a major industrial center because of its advantageous location for transportation. Melbourne is a junction for railroad and aviation routes. In addition, it is Australia’s most important port. At high tide it is accessible to ocean-going vessels. Its freight turnover is 6.5 million tons. Grain, flour, canned and frozen meat, fruit, and wool (35 percent of the total exports) are exported from Melbourne, and phosphorites, oil, and spare automobile parts are the main imports. The port is equipped with loading and unloading machinery. Each dock and wharf serves a particular type of ship. Thus, North Side accommodates coastal vessels; the Victoria Docks, trans-Atlantic ships; and Williamstown, the heavy tankers. Appleton Dock specializes in the transshipment of coal and phosphates.

Melbourne’s industry accounts for about two-thirds of the industrial output of the state of Victoria. The city’s principal industries are shipbuilding and ship repair, motor-vehicle manufacture and assembly, machine tools, agricultural machinery, food-processing, textiles, footwear, artillery, and aviation. Brown coal is mined near Melbourne, in the vicinity of Yallourn. Electrical energy for the city is supplied by the steam power plant in Morwell and the hydroelectric power plant on the Murray River.

Melbourne is the cultural center of Australia. A university, conservatory, observatory, botanical garden, and various museums are located in the city. The Sixteenth Summer Olympic Games were held in Melbourne in 1956. The business district is located on the right bank of the Yarra. On the left bank there are residential quarters, gardens, and parks. The industrial district borders on Port Phillip Bay.

Melbourne has developed according to a plan since 1837 (original architect, R. Hoddle). Enormous areas have been set aside as parks. Among the many examples of 19th-century eclecticism and the Gothic revival are the cathedrals of St. James (1841; architect, R. Russel) and St. Paul (1880; architect, W. Butterfly). Many of the residential buildings of the second half of the 19th century have balustrades, overhangs, and other wrought-iron details. For Melbourne, the 20th century has been a period of intensive growth. Buildings designed in the spirit of contemporary architecture include the Royal Melbourne Hospital, various residential and community buildings by H. Seidler and R. Boyd, and the Olympic complex (architect, Seidler), including its indoor pool (1956; architects, J. Murphy and P. Murphy, R. P. Mclntyre, and C. Borland; engineer, W. Irwin). Located in Melbourne are a number of museums, including the National Gallery of Victoria (art from Europe, Asia, and Australia), the National Museum of Victoria (aboriginal art), and the Museum of Modern Art and Design of Australia.

REFERENCE

Newnham, W. H. Melbourne. Melbourne, 1956.

Melbourne

1
William Lamb, 2nd Viscount. 1779--1848; Whig prime minister (1834; 1835--41). He was the chief political adviser to the young Queen Victoria

Melbourne

2
a port in SE Australia, capital of Victoria, on Port Phillip Bay: the second largest city in the country; settled in 1835 and developed rapidly with the discovery of rich goldfields in 1851; three universities. Pop.: 3 160 171 (2001)