Modality


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Modality

 

in linguistics, a conceptual category expressing the purposefulness of speech, the relationship of a speaker to the content of his utterance, and the relationship of the content of the utterance to reality.

Modality may signify affirmation, command, desire, permission, truth, and unreality. It is expressed by various grammatical and lexical means: modal verbs (“may,” “should”; German sollen, konnen, wollen), other modal words (“perhaps,” “likely”), and intonational means. Different languages express the various meanings of modality in different ways. For example, English expresses the modality of unreality by means of a special conjugation, the subjunctive II (“If you had come in time, we would have been able to catch the train”). In Yagnobi, the forms of the present-future tense can have the modal nuances of indirect command, permission, invitation to action, and intention of doing something.


Modality

 

the mode of existence of some object or the mode of duration of some phenomenon (ontological modality) or the way of understanding or drawing conclusions about an object, phenomenon, or event (epistemological or logical modality).

The concept of modality, which goes back to Aristotle, was later used in classical philosophical systems. The words (terms) expressing different modal concepts are the object of linguistic study. The distinction between propositions according to modality, elaborated in classical logic by the students and commentators of Aristotle (such as Theophrastus and Eudemus of Rhodes), was further defined by the medieval Scholastics.

In modern logic and philosophy, I. Kant’s division of propositions into assertoric (judgments about reality), apodictic (judgments of necessity), and problematic (judgments of possibility) has become traditional. The generally accepted derivation of the proposition “A occurs” from “A is necessary” and the proposition “A is possible” from “A occurs” has become the foundation of work on modality in contemporary formal (mathematical) logic. Modalities pertaining to propositions or predicates are known as alethic, while modalities pertaining to words expressing actions and acts are called deontic.

Modalities are further divided into “absolute” and “relative,” according to the usual meaning of these terms. In contemporary modal logic and logical semantics, modality is also sometimes understood to include the concepts “true” and “false,” as well as “provable,” “unprovable,” and “refutable.”

IU. A. GASTEV

References in periodicals archive ?
Joyful Machines introduced Modality to iPhone, iPad and Android Phone June 2016, and it became available to both Samsung Gear S3 in November 2016 and S2 January 2017.
Utilizing DICOMweb STOW-RS, QIDO-RS and WADO-RS, mobile devices and other secondary capture devices become DMWL nodes like any other imaging modality.
Several factors have been attributed to the early decline in home modality use.
Modalities Composition Modality 1 Control, without nitrogen and potassium fertilization.
His remarks came after Iran's Residing Representative to the International Atomic Energy Agency Ali Asqar Soltaniyeh said earlier this week that the UN inspectors may be allowed to visit Parchin military site but only after Tehran and the IAEA finalize the framework of a modality plan for cooperation.
On the basis of findings on adults, we further hypothesized that the perception through the combined modality (AV) would surpass perception of presentation through either the visual (V) or the auditory (A) modalities alone.
Under each category Callaham presents some or all of the texts employing the given modality that also contain an infinitive absolute; he gives the Hebrew, with the infinitive in bold, then a translation, with the verbal idea represented by the infinitive in bold and the modal nuance of the category in italics.
In our research, we used a direct objective measurement to further analyze the modality effect and the importance of the secondary task in dual task measurement of cognitive load.
Whereas SHALL is distributed across all kind of modalities, WILL has a limited variety, with a strong preference to dynamic modality.
With this deal, Sectra will free up funds to finance the development of its medical imaging IT operations, while the MicroDose modality operations will have Philipsa[euro](tm) support to develop new products, the vendor said.
I have used only written material, leaving out the features of spoken language, such as intonation and gestures, which might otherwise help to understand the modality of a certain expression.