Modoc

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Modoc

(mō`dŏk), Native North Americans whose language belongs to the Sahaptin-Chinook branch of the Penutian linguistic stock (see Native American languagesNative American languages,
languages of the native peoples of the Western Hemisphere and their descendants. A number of the Native American languages that were spoken at the time of the European arrival in the New World in the late 15th cent.
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). They formerly lived in SW Oregon and N California, particularly around Modoc Lake (also known as Lower Klamath Lake) and Tule Lake. Modoc culture was similar to the culture of the KlamathKlamath
, Native North Americans who in the 19th cent. lived in SW Oregon. They speak a language of the Sahaptin-Chinook branch of the Penutian linguistic stock (see Native American languages) and are related to the Modoc people.
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, but the Modoc did not rely as heavily on the wokas, or water-lily seeds, for food. There was considerable trouble between the Modoc and the early white settlers, with atrocities being committed on both sides. The Modoc were finally constrained to live (1864) on the Klamath Reservation in Oregon, but most of the tribe was dissatisfied. In 1870, Chief Kintpuash, or Captain JackCaptain Jack
(d. 1873), subchief of the Modoc and leader of the hostile group in the Modoc War (1872–73). Jack, whose Modoc name was Kintpuash , had agreed (1864) to leave his ancestral home and live on a reservation with the Klamath.
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, led a group back to California and refused to return to the reservation. The attempt to bring them back brought on the Modoc WarModoc War,
1872–73, series of battles between the Modoc and the U.S. army fought as a result of the attempt to force a group of the Modoc to return to the Klamath Reservation in S Oregon. Beginning in Nov., 1872, U.S.
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 (1872–73). After the Modoc War, the Modoc people were divided; some were sent to Oklahoma (where a few remain) and some to the Klamath Reservation in Oregon. The Modoc in Oregon share lands with the Klamath and Snake. In 1990 there were some 500 Modoc in the United States.

Bibliography

See V. F. Ray, Primitive Pragmatists: The Modoc Indians of Northern California (1963), R. H. Dillea, Burnt-Out-Fires (1973).

References in periodicals archive ?
They reasoned that the Modoc tribe was akin to a foreign nation, that a state of war existed between the tribe and the United States, and that the killing of Canby during peace negotiations was a war crime.
Chief Follis of the Modoc Tribe had the foresight to acquire trust land with great access and Chief Leonard of the Miami Tribe took the initiative to obtain one of the first OTB Compacts with the State of Oklahoma.
The past eight years have been, and we fully expect will continue to be, a successful and profitable relationship for the Miami Tribe, Modoc Tribe and Butler.
The changes to the management contract extended the contract term and revised the distribution of net profits between the Miami Tribe, Modoc Tribe and Butler National Service Corporation.
Butler National's management agreement with the Miami and Modoc Tribes was approved on Jan.
Butler National and the Miami and Modoc Tribes expect that this facility will draw from the local-area residents, area tourists and travelers along I-44.
12, 1996, the Miami and Modoc Tribes filed what we all believe to be the 'final' Management Agreement for approval by the NIGC of the Class II and Class III gaming enterprise to be located in Miami, Okla.
Butler National's agreement with the Miami and Modoc Tribes to
A Class III Indian Gaming Compact for a joint venture for a gaming enterprise operated by the Miami and Modoc Tribes on Modoc Indian land in Miami, Okla.
NASDAQ:BUKS) reported that a Class III Indian Gaming Compact with the State of Oklahoma for a joint venture by the Miami and Modoc Tribes, both of Oklahoma, has been approved by Ada E.
Additionally, a Class III Indian Gaming compact for a joint venture of the Miami and Modoc Tribes on Modoc Indian land in Miami, Okla.
NASDAQ:BUKS) reported that a Class III Indian Gaming Compact for a joint venture by the Miami and Modoc Tribes, both of Oklahoma, has been approved by the State of Oklahoma and is progressing toward final approval.