Modoc War

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Modoc War,

1872–73, series of battles between the Modoc and the U.S. army fought as a result of the attempt to force a group of the Modoc to return to the Klamath Reservation in S Oregon. Beginning in Nov., 1872, U.S. soldiers were engaged in sieges against the Modoc who were encamped in the lava beds near Tule Lake, Calif. The soldiers, after losing battle after battle, increased their forces to 1,000 by Mar., 1873. During peace negotiations Gen E. R. S. Canby and Eleazer Thomas were killed; the soldiers intensified their efforts to subdue the Modoc and finally in late May, 1873, Captain JackCaptain Jack
(d. 1873), subchief of the Modoc and leader of the hostile group in the Modoc War (1872–73). Jack, whose Modoc name was Kintpuash , had agreed (1864) to leave his ancestral home and live on a reservation with the Klamath.
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 and his much reduced force of 30 warriors were captured. Captain Jack and three other leaders were hanged in October. The Modoc War proved costly to both sides: 87 soldiers were killed and 83 were wounded. Although the Modoc lost only 8 warriors and an unlisted number of women and children in the fighting, they were thereafter divided as a people.
References in periodicals archive ?
These events included a few local incidents, a rabble-rousing newspaper man in Union County, the Modoc Wars in the Klamath country, Indian affairs in the wake of the Civil War, President Grant's failed attempt to rescind the 1863 treaty and give half of the Wallowas to the Joseph Band, and Gen.
Several were only recently discovered, nested within a larger 1873 series of stereographs Muybridge made documenting the Modoc Wars (Solnit, "Tangles" 184).
His landscape and terrain images include Alaska and Central America, Yosemite and the Sierra Nevada Mountains, and he was in northeastern California photographing Tule Lake for the US Army when the Modoc Wars erupted in 1873.