Muhammad Reza Shah Pahlevi

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Muhammad Reza Shah Pahlevi

(mo͞ohäm`mäd rĭzä shä pă`ləvē), 1919–80, shah of Iran (1941–79). Educated in Switzerland, he returned (1935) to Iran to attend the military academy in Tehran. He ascended the throne in 1941 after his father, Reza Shah PahleviReza Shah Pahlevi
, 1878–1944, shah of Iran (1925–41). He began his career as an army officer and gained a reputation for valor and leadership. He headed a coup in 1921 and became prime minister of the new regime in 1923.
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, suspected of collaboration with the Germans, was deposed by British and Soviet troops. He narrowly escaped assassination (1949) by a member of the leftist Tudeh party, and in 1953 briefly fled the country after a clash with supporters of Muhammad MussadeghMussadegh, Muhammad
, 1880–1967, Iranian political leader, prime minister of Iran (1951–53). He held a variety of government posts (1914–25) but retired to private life in protest against the shah's assumption of dictatorial powers in 1925.
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. The shah launched (1963) a reform program with U.S. assistance called the "White Revolution," which included land redistribution among citizens, extensive construction, the promotion of literacy, and the emancipation of women, but wealth, emanating from the oil industry, was unequally distributed among Iranians and the clergy disapproved of his pro-Western policies. As popular discontent grew, particularly in the early 1970s, the shah became more repressive, calling upon his brutal secret police (SAVAK) to put down domestic strife. By 1978 demonstrations and unrest had become widespread. On Jan. 16, 1979, Shah Pahlevi fled the country; the exiled religious leader Ruhollah KhomeiniKhomeini, Ayatollah Ruhollah
, 1900–1989, Iranian Shiite religious leader. Educated in Islam at home and in theological schools, in the 1950s he was designated ayatollah, a supreme religious leader, in the Iranian Shiite community.
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 returned to Iran and took control. When in Oct., 1979, Iranian extremists stormed the U.S. embassy in Tehran, they demanded the shah in return for the American hostages being held in the embassy. The shah remained abroad and died in Egypt in 1980.

Bibliography

See biography by A. Milani (2011).

References in periodicals archive ?
But after Shah Mohammad Reza Pahlavi was deposed in 1979 during the Islamic revolution, Jews left Iran en masse.
This event was preceded by the Islamic revolution, which resulted in the overthrow of the last Shah of Iran - Mohammad Reza Pahlavi in February, 1979.
Modernity has also presented a challenge for monarchy -- as Milani traced in "The Shah," his biography of Mohammad Reza Pahlavi, published in 2011.
backed Shah Mohammad Reza Pahlavi and Iranians held 52 Americans hostage for more than a year.
Iran severed its diplomatic ties with Egypt after the 1979 Islamic Revolution because Egypt had signed the Camp David Accords with the Israeli regime and offered asylum to Iran's deposed monarch, Mohammad Reza Pahlavi.
Central Intelligence Agency and British intelligence, in cooperation with forces loyal to Mohammad Reza Pahlavi, the Shah of Iran, the popularly-elected Prime Minister of Iran, Mohammad Mosaddegh, was forcibly removed from power.
Tehran maintains that an agreement signed eight years before its 1979 Islamic Revolution between Shah Mohammad Reza Pahlavi and the ruler of one of the UAE's seven emirates, Sharjah, gives it the right to administer Abu Musa and station troops there.
Iran severed diplomatic relations with Egypt following the peace treaty signed between Israel and Egypt in 1979 and Egypt's hosting of deposed Iranian leader Shah Mohammad Reza Pahlavi.
The students, who took 52 American diplomats hostage for 444 days, said they were responding to Washington's refusal to hand over the deposed shah, Mohammad Reza Pahlavi.
On the other hand, Iran while under its last monarch, Mohammad Reza Pahlavi, did not only stand as an enemy to the Arabs, their unity, and their central cause, that of Palestine, it also interfered in their affairs, starting with its occupation of three islands in the United Arab Emirates and its war of attrition against Iraq," Qallab wrote in ASHARQ AL AWSAT.
The students, who took 52 American diplomats hostage and held them for 444 days, said they were responding to Washington s refusal to hand over the deposed shah, Mohammad Reza Pahlavi.
Iranian student activists entered the US embassy on November 4, 1979, taking 52 Americans hostage in response to Washington's refusal to handover Mohammad Reza Pahlavi, the shah deposed by the Islamic Revolution.