Mohammed Ali Jinnah


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Jinnah, Mohammed Ali

 

Born Dec. 25, 1876, in Karachi; died there Sept. 11, 1948. Indian and Pakistani political leader.

Jinnah was the son of a Gujarati merchant of the Muslim Khoja caste. After receiving a law degree in Britain in 1896, he practiced law in Bombay until 1930. In 1906 he joined the Indian National Congress and was close to its moderate leaders G. Gokhale, D. Naoroji, and S. Naidu. Simultaneously a member of the Muslim League from 1912 on, Jinnah advocated unity between Hindus and Muslims on the eve of World War I. In 1921, at a time when the National Congress was becoming a mass party, he left the Congress, considering it too radical, and condemned M. Gandhi’s civil disobedience campaigns. When an Indian constitution was discussed at an all-party conference in 1928, Jinnah proposed that the Muslims be granted one-third of all the seats in government bodies, even though they constituted only one-fourth of India’s population, and that election districts be created according to religious criteria.

Jinnah lived in Britain from 1930 to 1934. He was a member of the Indian delegation to the Round Table Conference from 1930 to 1932 and became the leader of the Muslim League in 1934. While advocating India’s independence, Jinnah in his political activity essentially represented the interests of the Muslim elite, composed of landowners, the big bourgeoisie, and the intelligentsia. Jinnah was one of the ideologists of the theory that there are two nations in India, one Hindu and the other Muslim, a theory that defined a nation by a religious criterion. In 1940, Jinnah led the Muslim League in the demand that the regions with a predominantly Muslim population be separated from India and be unified as the state of Pakistan. Later he led the movement for the establishment of Pakistan. After the partition of India in 1947, he became governor-general of Pakistan. In Pakistan, Jinnah is considered the founder of the state and called Great Leader (Quaid-e-Azam) and Father of the Nation.

WORKS

Speeches and Writings of Mr. Jinnah [6th ed.], vols. 1-2. Edited by Jamil-ud-din Ahmad. Lahore, 1960-64.

REFERENCES

D’iakov, A. M. Natsional’nyi vopros i angliiskii imperializm v Indii. [Moscow] 1948.
Gankovskii, Iu. V., and L. R. Gordon-Polonskaia. Istoriia Pakistana. Moscow, 1961.
Gordon-Polonskaia, L. R. Musulmanskie techeniia v obshchestvennoi mysli Indii i Pakistana. Moscow, 1963.
Bolitho, H.Jinnah: Creator of Pakistan. London, 1954.
Saiyid, M. H. Mohammad Ail Jinnah (A Political Study), 2nd ed. Lahore [1953].

L. I. IUREVICH

References in periodicals archive ?
And so it must have seemed to Mohammed Ali Jinnah and the people of Pakistan after Nehru ordered troops into Kashmir and refused to hold the oft-promised plebiscite in which the predominantly Muslim population of Kashmir would settle their future status.
Sheikh Abdullah on his part tried his very best to meet Mohammed Ali Jinnah, Governor General of Pakistan and reach some consensus; but alas, he was insulted and Mohammed Ali Jinnah refused to meet the tallest Kashmiri leader when the latter had secretly travelled to Lahore to meet him.
It's the story of Mohammed Ali Jinnah, founder of Pakistan, and stars Mr Lee, who says it is the ``best performance I have given on screen in 57 years''.
and the Mohammed Ali Jinnah Post Graduate Hospital.
He said that the deceased was the committed leader whose burning desire was to complete the mission of Quaid-e-Azam Mohammed Ali Jinnah to ensure the freedom of the people of Kashmir and complete the geography of Pakistan.
He said that father of the nation Mohammed Ali Jinnah envisioned a democratic and progressive state where all citizen would have equal opportunities to advance without any prejudice of religion, cast and creed and where there would be tolerance to political dissent and disagreements.
Scuppering this was Mohammed Ali Jinnah who arrived in Kashmir to a hero's welcome in May 1944.
We have had good experience of youth policing in Islamabad, and it is our endeavour to further avail their services in all major cities in collaboration with the local area police," Malik told media representatives after Eid prayers and a visit to the mausoleum of Quaid-i-Azam Mohammed Ali Jinnah.
During those days he had the opportunity to meet many great leaders and poets, including Mohammed Ali Jinnah, Josh Malihabadi, Jigar Moradabadi and Firaq Gorakhpuri.
But Lee is most proud of his dramatic role in 1997 film Jinnah when he played the title role as Muslim leader and founder of Pakistan, Mohammed Ali Jinnah.
Singh was summarily expelled by the BJP on August 19, 2009, for writing a book on Mohammed Ali Jinnah.
I am not one amongst those who would sit glued in a corner and shed tears over the martyrdom of the Babri Mosque in Ayodhya or lavish praise on the founder of Pakistan Mohammed Ali Jinnah and duck when comes under criticism," Manmohan said attacking Advani at a press conference at Hotel Grand Hyatt.