(redirected from Mongolians)
Also found in: Dictionary, Thesaurus, Medical.


the language of Mongolia: see Khalkha



the language of the Mongols, the predominant population of the Mongolian People’s Republic and Inner Mongolia, and of groups living in various provinces of the People’s Republic of China. Mongolian belongs to the Mongolian language group and is spoken by approximately 3 million persons (1970, estimate). It evolved between the 14th and 16th centuries.

Mongolian is divided into dialects. The Khalkha dialect has both sibilant and hushing consonants. Dialects having only hushing consonants (without the phonemes dz and ts) include Chakhar (Chahar), Kharchin, Tumet, and Ordos. Mongolian is an agglutinative language in which the subject occurs before the predicate, and the attribute precedes the dependent member. The language has no grammatical gender, and there is no agreement of the attribute with the dependent member or of the predicate with the subject in number and case. It also lacks personal-predicative particles, thereby differing from other Mongolian languages and the Turkic languages. Mongolian has seven cases and personal and impersonal possession, the particles of which occur after the case endings. Verbs have five voices and 21 conjugated forms. Participial and adverbial-participial constructions replace subordinate clauses, and the accusative case is used to form the subject of such constructions.

In the phonetic system the phonemes k, p, and f occur only in recent borrowings, and b and v are variants of the same phoneme in native Mongolian words. Voiced consonants are devoiced at the end of a syllable, and l and r almost never occur at the beginning of a word. Many consonants have palatalized variants, for example, khaliuun (“otter”) and khaluun (“hot”). Vowels are subject to the laws of vowel harmony and may be phonemically short or long, for example, kharakh (“to look”) and khaarakh (“to be closed”) or der (“head of the bed”) and deer (“above”). The Mongolian language began to evolve as a national language, based on the Khalkha dialect, after the Mongolian People’s Revolution of 1921.


Todaeva, B. Kh. Grammatika sovremennogo mongol’skogo iazyka: Fonetika i morfologiia. Moscow, 1951.
Sanzheev, G. D. Sovremennyi mongol’skii iazyk, 2nd ed. Moscow, 1960.
Sanzheev, G. D. Staropis’mennyi mongol’skii iazyk. Moscow, 1964.
Mongol’sko-russkii slovar’ Edited by A. Luvsandendev. Moscow, 1957.
Damdinsuren, Ts., and A. Luvsandendev. Oros-mongol tol’ vols. 1–2. Ulan Bator, 1967–69.
Rinchen, B. Mongol bichgiin khelnii zui, parts 1–2. Ulan Bator, 1964–66.
Tsevel, la. Mongol khelnii tovch tailbar tol’ Ulan Bator, 1966.
Luvsanvandan, Sh. Orchin tsagiin mongol khelnii butets, parts 1–2. Ulan Bator, 1967–68.
Street, J. Khalkha Structure. The Hague, 1963.
Lessing, F. Mongolian-English Dictionary. Berkeley-Los Angeles, 1960.


References in periodicals archive ?
In the women's competitions, throughout the lightweight competitions, American Jenelle Hamilton acquired first place, while the Mongolian Solongo Tsend obtained second.
Children serve meat and milky tea to the family members with traditional meals such as buuz, which is a Mongolian style dolci.
Sunmin Yoon is an ethnomusicologist specializing in Mongolian folk songs.
The visiting delegates from the Mongolian univer- sity included Bat Khurel, Director and Bolorm, Head, Foreign Languages and International Relations.
The president has demanded that Rio Tinto provide more management jobs to native Mongolians, among other entreaties.
February 17, 2013 (BENTIU) - The Mongolian president, Tsakhiagiin Elbegdorj, visited his country's troops who are serving as the United Nations peacekeepers in South Sudan Unity State on Friday.
As recently as October 2011, the Mongolian Government reaffirmed that the Investment Agreement was signed in full compliance with all laws and regulations of Mongolia.
About 40 Mongolians marched to the government headquarters in Inner Mongolia's Naiman Banner on Wednesday to demand their land rights and the release of the 22 protesters detained a day earlier, the US-based Southern Mongolian Human Rights Information Center said.
The discontent Gallup observed in its data last year suggests many Mongolians were primed for change, but given the lack of trust in the electoral process, they may doubt whether that can be legitimately achieved.
Police said a growing number of Mongolians and foreign residents were collecting and smoking cannabis; however, there were no reliable surveys on drug use.
While Genghis Khan's international notoriety is as a brilliant but ruthless marauder, Mongolians revere him as a paragon of order and civilisation.
China and Mongolia will jointly work to protect a traditional ethnic Mongolian song sung by people in both countries, official media said Tuesday.