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see hydrazinehydrazine
, chemical compound, formula NH2NH2, m.p. 1.4°C;, b.p. 113.5°C;, specific gravity 1.011 at 15°C;. It is very soluble in water and soluble in alcohol.
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any one of a group of chloroderivatives of ammonia (inorganic chloramines) or amines (organic chloramines), whose molecules contain a chlorine atom bonded to nitrogen. (For a discussion of inorganic chloramines, seeNITROGEN CHLORIDE.)

Organic chloramines are liquids or solids, with a pungent odor that irritates the upper respiratory tract. They include the liquids N-chlorodimethylamine, (CH3)2NCl, which boils at 46°C, N,N-dichloromethylamine, CH3NCl2, which boils at 58°–60°C, and N,N-dichloroethylamine, C2H5NCl2, and N-chlorodiethylamine, (C2H5)2NCl, which boils at 91°C. Hexachloromelamine, whose structural formula is

is a yellow crystalline compound with a melting point of 149°C.

Chloramines decompose in the presence of water, including atmospheric moisture, with the formation of an amine and hypochlorous acid, HOCl. Solutions of chloramines in organic solvents are rather stable. Chloramines are produced by the action of chlorine or hypochlorous acid on amines and amine salts.

The term “chloramine” is often used to denote any N-chloro-derivative of the amides of organic and inorganic acids. Chloramides and dichloramides of aromatic sulfonic acids have found great practical use. Chloramine-B, C6H5SO2NNaCl · 3H2O (the sodium salt of the N-chloramide of benzenesulfonic acid), and chloramine-T, (CH3)C6H4SO2NNaCl · 3H2O (the sodium salt of the N-chloramide of p-toluenesulfonic acid), are colorless crystals with a melting point of 180°–185°C and 175°–180°C, respectively; they are readily soluble in water and ethanol. Dichloramine-B (N,N-dichloro-benzenesulfonamide) and dichloramine-T (N,N-dichloro-p-toluenesulfonamide) are crystals with an odor of chlorine and a melting point of 69°–72°C and 80°–83°C, respectively; they are insoluble in water but soluble in organic solvents, usually dichloroethane.

Chloramines have oxidizing and chlorinating properties and consequently are used in analytical chemistry and in industry, for example, in the textile industry to bleach fabrics; they are also used as decontaminants. In medicine, chloramines, mainly chloramine-B, are used as antiseptics. Chloramine-B, which contains 25–29 percent active chlorine, is also used as a deodorizer and spermatocide. A 0.25–0.5 percent solution of chloramine-B is used to disinfect hands, while a 1–5 percent solution of chloramine-B, chloramine-T, or dichloramine are used to decontaminate utensils and excretions of patients with intestinal and respiratory infections. Chloramines are also used for chlorination of water (Pantocid tablets), treatment of infected wounds, and decontamination of hands and nonmetallic equipment.

References in periodicals archive ?
Activated Carbon Surface + Monochloramine + Water [right arrow] Ammonia + Hydronium Ion + Chloride Ion + Oxidized Site on the Activated Carbon Surface
Risk of hospital-acquired Legionnaires' disease in cities using monochloramine versus other water disinfectants.
The monochloramine and hypochlorous acid solutions were roughly equivalent in their respective impacts.
Free chlorine, monochloramine, dichloramine, trichloramine, and THMs were measured in composite pool water samples (1 L) collected from four different locations.
Trichloramine in water was undetectable, and monochloramine correlated with the same DBPs as dichloramine, so we show only dichloramine in the tables.
Monochloramine is the most active compound and forms preferentially at certain ratios of ammonia to chlorine.
inactivation of Cryptosporidium parvum oocysts with ozone and monochloramine at low temperature.
Immunological evaluation of chlorine-based drinking water disinfectants, sodium hypochlorite and monochloramine.
1991), "Effects of Ozone, Chlorine Dioxide, Chlorine, and Monochloramine on Cryptosporidium parvum oocysts Viability," Appl Environ Microbiol, 56(5):1423-1428.
The use of chlorination, copper-silver ionization, monochloramine, and heat to control the bacterium continues to be the subject of controversy.
It specializes in matters involving chemical disinfection that advises clients on matters pertaining to chlorine (bleach), chlorine dioxide, ozone, monochloramines and related oxyhalogens, with an emphasis on water treatment.
G&R is an independent consulting firm specializing in matters involving chemical disinfection that advises clients on matters pertaining to chlorine (bleach), chlorine dioxide, ozone, monochloramines and related oxyhalogens, with an emphasis on water treatment.