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for printing, was invented in China (c.1040), using woodblocks. Related devices, such as seals and stamps for making impressions in clay, had been used in ancient times in Babylon and elsewhere.
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 set by the Monotype machine. See printingprinting,
means of producing reproductions of written material or images in multiple copies. There are four traditional types of printing: relief printing (with which this article is mainly concerned), intaglio, lithography, and screen process printing.
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(in art), a type of print graphics. The technique of monotype consists in the application of inks by hand to the ideally smooth surface of a plate, with subsequent printing on a press; the print produced is always unique. Works executed in monotype are characterized by subtlety of color relations and smoothness and softness of the edges of shapes, which outwardly makes monotype similar to watercolors. The monotype technique has been known since the 17th century but has been in wide use only since the late 19th century. The major figures in Russian and Soviet monotype are E. S. Kruglikova, A. V. Shevchenko, and R. N. Barto.



an automatic composing machine used for setting complicated book and journal text in the form of lines consisting of individual characters. The Monotype was invented in 1897 by T. Lanston (USA). The first Monotypes in the USSR were manufactured in 1947 at the Leningrad Printing Machinery Plant.

The executive program for an automatic caster is produced by a specialized MK programmer in the form of a wide punched tape (a combination of one to four holes corresponds to each symbol). During programming, the counter of the device adds the widths of the set symbols and space between words and calculates how much space must be added to make the length of the lines correspond to the predetermined measure. The operator codes the necessary increase in spacing width onto the tape by pressing two keys, based on readings from the scale on the set drum. The MK-5 programmer (Figure 1) has 364 keys and can be used to encode 288 different symbols and spaces and the required commands for controlling the automatic unit.

Figure 1. Diagram of the MK-5 composer-programmer (USSR): (1) keyboard, (2) ducts, (3) perforator, (4) punches, (5) paper tape, (6) set drum, (7) counter, (8) space bar

The MO-5 automatic caster (Figure 2) has a die case, a mold, and a caster. The dies are secured in the die case. The punched tape is decoded in the automatic unit in the sequence opposite to the sequence in which it was set. Upon receiving a command from the punched tape, the die case shifts and the required matrix moves over the casting cavity of the mold, whose width is determined automatically by a command from the punched tape. Then the mold, together with the depression in the matrix, is filled with molten type metal under pressure. As a result the required symbol or space is cast. The cast letters and spaces are pushed into the line channel. The lines of type, which are of identical length, are formed from individual characters and spaces. Galleys are made up from the lines.

Figure 2. Diagram of the MO-5 composing machine (USSR): (1) paper tape; (2) air ducts; (3) air chambers with devices to limit motion of the die case in two directions; (4) pump for feeding alloy into form; (5) die case; (6) receiving tray; (7) line channel, into which cast letters are ejected; (8) mold to which one matrix in the die case is pressed

The rate of preparation of the executive program for the automatic unit is close to the typing speed on an ordinary typewriter. The automatic caster casts up to 180 characters per minute.


Bushunov, V. T. Monotip (Nabornaia i otlivnaia mashiny). Moscow-Leningrad, 1948.
Shul’meister, M. V. Monotip: Ustroistvo i ekspluatatsiia bukvootlivnykh nabornykh mashin, books 1–2. Moscow, 1961–63.



A single type of organism that constitutes a species or genus.
(graphic arts)
A printing technique in which a picture is painted on a sheet of glass or metal; the picture is transferred to a sheet of paper by pressure; additional copies require that the subject be repainted on the plate.
References in periodicals archive ?
The Monotype system, Hopkins suggests, was the first digital process adopted for daily use in typesetting plants, a precursor to the computerized revolution in the industry that emerged some seventy years later.
The booklet, included as an example of fine letterpress printing, is part of a series issued by Hopkins using his own Monotype Composition Caster.
Monotype subsidiaries GB Techniques and Sinclair Imaging Systems Ltd.
In January 1990, Monotype reverted to private ownership after Pointplus PLC had acquired a 90% stake in the typography designer and output device manufacturer.
This is an important milestone in our history, as we combine two entities that care passionately about type," said Doug Shaw, president and chief executive officer at Monotype Imaging.
Combining MyFonts' success in bringing together cutting-edge type designs from 21st century designers with Monotype Imaging's huge library of classic faces and top-notch design expertise sets up for a strong, exciting future for type.
Expo attendees are invited to speak with Monotype Imaging at basecamp, which is a central location for Microsoft partners that are developing solutions for the next version of Windows.
Further information is also available from Monotype Imaging's Camphor microsite.
Established more than a century ago and influenced by British design, Monotype is a Monotype Imaging brand that represents classic, high-quality typefaces for brand managers, publishers and content creators.
Ascender is passionate about type and understands its power to secure brand trust, engage everyday communication and enhance creativity," said Doug Shaw, president and chief executive officer at Monotype Imaging.
We look forward to adding our artistry, craftsmanship and technical expertise to the team at Monotype Imaging - skills that are at the heart of the company's history and remain true today," said Ira Mirochnick, president of Ascender.
As part of the consideration for the transaction, Monotype Imaging has awarded 71,948 shares of restricted common stock to Ira Mirochnick, the former president of Ascender who is becoming the vice president and general manager of Monotype Imaging's Display Imaging group, and 32,703 shares of restricted common stock to each of Brian P.