One historian notes, "It is difficult to believe that the man who wrote the Apology is the same man who wrote On the Military Crown about fourteen years later, though the later document is a product of his Montanist
[and thus, extremely sectarian] point of view.
Like the Montanist
, an arrogant distinction was drawn between its superior members (The Elect) and the Outsiders (The Hearers).
, moreover, called their movement the New Prophecy, since the Holy Spirit continues to give Christians new teachings.
It was a common semantic vocabulary used and reused by Pythagoreans, Christians, Platonists, montanists
of the second century, the movement of Cola di Rienzo in fourteenth-century Rome, the Anabaptist Kingdom of Muenster in the 1530s, the apocalyptic preoccupations of the Emperor Alexander I of Russia, the millennial visions of the Metis leader Louis Riel, and the twentieth-century People's Temple of Jim Jones and the Branch Davidians of Waco, Texas, and many more are described.
My favorite example of such a difference of opinion within the Christian tradition concerns the school of devotees in the early church called Montanists
who believed that only by eating a steady diet of radishes could a person be saved.
PROPHETS AND GRAVESTONES: AN IMAGINATIVE HISTORY OF MONTANISTS
AND OTHER EARLY CHRISTIANS.
probably ordained women as priests and bishops, though there is no surviving evidence that this happened in North Africa.
In the Essay on Development Newman marveled at the Catholic Church's ability to borrow the good from pagan Gnostics and Platonists, heretical Montanists
, Novatians, and Manichees and still remain pure.
The advent of Islam recreated for the Church a situation similar to that which it had faced earlier in the doctrinal debates of the third and fourth centuries with the Gnostics, Montanists
, and other groups.
, Paulicians, Albigenses, Waldensians, and even St.
Similarly, the council of Laodicia required rebaptism for Montanists
but chrismation for Novatianists or Quartodecimans.