Monte Albán

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Monte Albán

(mōn`tā älbän`), ancient city, c.7 mi (11.3 km) from Oaxaca, SW Mexico, capital of the ZapotecZapotec
, indigenous people of Mexico, primarily in S Oaxaca and on the Isthmus of Tehuantepec. Little is known of the origin of the Zapotec. Unlike most native peoples of Middle America, they had no traditions or legends of migration, but believed themselves to have been born
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. Monte Albán was built on an artificially leveled, rocky promontory above the Valley of Oaxaca. Located around an enormous plaza about 1,000 ft (300 m) long and 650 ft (198 m) wide are long, low buildings set off by sunken courts and stairways. The tombs, particularly Tomb 7, have yielded great archaeological treasure—jewelry of gold, copper, jade, rock crystal, obsidian, and turquoise mosaic and bone and wood carving showing elaborate religious symbolism. Excavation was begun (1931) by the Mexican archaeologist Alfonso CasoCaso, Alfonso
, 1896–1970, Mexican archaeologist. An authority on the ancient high civilizations of Mexico, he directed explorations at Mitla and Monte Albán during the 1920s and 30s. Among his many books and articles are The Religion of the Aztecs (tr.
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. The Zapotec apparently had an advanced culture here c.200 B.C. and already were using the bar and dot system of numerals used by the Maya. The final epoch (c.1300–1521), terminated by the Spanish Conquest, covers the ascendancy of the MixtecMixtec
, Native American people of Oaxaca, Puebla, and part of Guerrero, SW Mexico, one of the most important groups in Mexico. Although the Mixtec codices constitute the largest collection of pre-Columbian manuscripts in existence, their origin is obscure.
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, when the Zapotec were driven from Monte Albán and MitlaMitla
[Nahuatl,=abode of the dead], religious center of the Zapotec, near Oaxaca, SW Mexico. Probably built in the 13th cent., the buildings, unlike the pyramidal structures of most Middle American architecture, are low, horizontal masses enclosing the plazas.
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. Tomb 7 belongs to the final period. Cultural links with the OlmecOlmec
, term denoting the culture of ancient Mexican natives inhabiting the tropical coastal plain of the contemporary states of Veracruz and Tabasco, between 1300 and 400 B.C.
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 and the ToltecToltec
, ancient civilization of Mexico. The name in Nahuatl means "master builders." The Toltec formed a warrior aristocracy that gained ascendancy in the Valley of Mexico c.A.D. 900 after the fall of Teotihuacán.
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 have been found.

Monte Albán

 

a city in southern Mexico, in Oaxaca State. From the fourth century B.C. to the 16th century A.D. the region around Monte Alban was a political and cultural center, first of the Zapotecs and later of the Mixtecs. Archaeological excavations conducted here from the early 1930’s by the Mexican scholar A. Caso have uncovered palaces, pyramids, stelae with inscriptions, an amphitheater, a stone staircase 40 meters wide, and other structures built on the crest of a mountain range on artificial terraces. The walls of buildings were decorated with frescoes, mosaics, and human figures in relief. The excavations also uncovered about 150 tombs with funerary urns in the shape of men and animals. In one of the tombs belonging to a Mixtec chief were found many gold artifacts of high artistic quality.

REFERENCE

Kinzhalov, R. V. Iskusstvo drevnei Ameriki. Moscow, 1962.
References in periodicals archive ?
Desde 1992 esta a cargo del desarrollo del Proyecto Especial Monte Alban con el que pretende aumentar los conocimientos del sitio y precisar en la cronologia.
Monte Alban seems to float at cloud level on a mountaintop high above the Valley of Oaxaca.
Posteriormente, el mandatario rumano, su esposa y demas integrantes de su comitiva, alrededor de 80 personas, efectuaron una visita a la zona arqueologica de Monte Alban, en donde apreciaron parte de la cultura mixtecozapoteca.
Al respecto, el arqueologo Jorge Bautista Hernandez, del mismo sindicato, otorga algunos nombres de esos 18 proyectos: el Museo de Santo Domingo, el Museo Casa Juarez, Monte Alban, Mitla, Atzompa, los proyectos de investigacion del Corredor Arqueologico del Valle de Oaxaca (Dainzu, Yagul, Lambityeco, Mitla), Pueblo Viejo de Teposcolula, diversos proyectos de salvamento y rescate arqueologico a nivel estatal; proyecto Cuevas de Yagul y Mitla, el salvamento de la carretera Barranca Larga-Ventanillas "y quien sabe que otros mas".
Acuse de recibo: Entre las sombras de Monte Alban, novela de Manuel Matus, coedicion Universidad Autonoma de Ciudad Juarez y la Universidad de Texas y El Paso.
Al visitar el sitio arqueologico de Monte Alban, en el estado de Oaxaca, el pasado viernes I 0 de octubre, el suscrito y otros visitantes fuimos victimas de una arbitrariedad por parte del personal.
El pintor Francisco Toledo hizo un llamado para que la comunidad oaxaquena, instituciones y grupos se opongan a un proyecto comercial que deterioraria Monte Alban, centro ceremonial de la cultura zapoteca.
Hace unos meses cayo una turista canadiense de la Piramide, por lo que ya no se puede subir a la estructura; con un pasamano discreto bien disenado (como en la Plataforma Sur de Monte Alban, Oaxaca) se pudo solucionar el problema, sin embargo prohibieron la subida a la Piramide.
Cuatro de ellos se derivan del compromiso que implica la inscripcion de cuatro zonas arqueologicas en la lista de sitios considerados por la UNESCO patrimonio de la humanidad: Teotihuacan, Chichen-Itza, Palenque y Monte Alban.
Hay ejemplos en Monte Alban, cuyo edificio conocido como "del Vertice Geodesico" dio muestras de haber tenido muros policromos, si bien se desconocen los disenos; uno mas es Quiotepec, del cual se sabe que algunas tumbas fueron decoradas; otro tanto puede decirse de las regiones de la Mixteca, la Chinantla, la Mixtequilla y Tehuantepec.
Con nueva tecnologia, donada por el gobierno de Japon en 2003, la zona arqueologica de Monte Alban es monitoreada para su preservacion.
menina del cosmos, Teotihuacan, La tumba 7 de Monte Alban, genetica molecular, los animales en el mundo prehispanico, y codices coloniales.