Montreal Protocol


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Montreal Protocol,

officially the Protocol on Substances That Deplete the Ozone Layer, treaty signed on Sept. 16, 1987, at Montreal by 25 nations; 168 nations are now parties to the accord. The protocol set limits on the production of chlorofluorocarbonschlorofluorocarbons
(CFCs), organic compounds that contain carbon, chlorine, and fluorine atoms. CFCs are highly effective refrigerants that were developed in response to the pressing need to eliminate toxic and flammable substances, such as sulfur dioxide and ammonia, in
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 (CFCs), halons, and related substances that release chlorine or bromine to the ozone layerozone layer
or ozonosphere,
region of the stratosphere containing relatively high concentrations of ozone, located at altitudes of 12–30 mi (19–48 km) above the earth's surface.
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 of the atmosphere. On the basis of increasing scientific knowledge about the effects of CFCs and halons on the ozone layer, the original protocol has been amended several times. At meetings in London (1990), Copenhagen (1992), Vienna (1995), and Montreal (1997) amendments were adopted that were designed to speed up the phasing out of ozone-depleting substances; not all parties to the main protocol are parties to these amendments. The production and consumption of halons was phased out by Jan. 1, 1994, and of CFCs, carbon tetrachloride, methyl chloroform, and hydrobromofluorocarbons by Jan. 1, 1996, subject to an exception for agreed essential users. Methyl bromide was to be phased out by 2005 but a number of users of the chemical have won temporary exceptions from the ban, and hydrochlorofluorocarbons are to be phased out by 2020. (Phaseout dates are later for developing countries.)

Under the protocol, the ozone-depleting potential, or ODP, of any substance is measured with respect to an equal mass of CCl3F, or CFC-11, which is assigned a value of 1.0. Most other CFCs have ODPs that range from about 0.5 to about 1.3. Hydrochlorofluorocarbons, which are being used as transitional replacements (until 2020) for CFCs in refrigeration, have ODPs that are generally less than 0.5. Hydrofluorocarbons, which are also replacing CFCs as refrigerants, have ODPs of zero. Ozone-depleting potentials are based on existing scientific knowledge and are to be reviewed and revised periodically.

Bibliography

See D. E. Newton, The Ozone Dilemma(1995).

References in periodicals archive ?
As the world counts down to the UN Climate Change Conference in Paris at the end of this month, the 197 parties to the Montreal Protocol on Substances that Deplete the Ozone Layer have agreed on a "Dubai Pathway" for controlling climate-change-inducing hydrofluorocarbons (HFCs).
The 27th meeting of the Parties to the Montreal Protocol was welcomed by Dr Rashid Ahmad Bin Fahd, Minister of Environment and Water.
They underlined unifying stances during the negotiations on the United Nations Convention on Climate Change, the Vienna Convention for the Protection of the Ozone Layer and the Montreal Protocol on Substances that Deplete the Ozone Layer.
ISLAMABAD -- Speakers at a seminar here Wednesday stressed for proper implementation of the Montreal Protocol to protect the Ozone layer and launching awareness campaign among the public.
The success of the Montreal Protocol shows that the world can come together to deal with environmental threats.
Environment Minister Prakash Javadekar, at a meeting on Montreal Protocol ( on substances that deplete the ozone layer), has asked for actual figures and not estimates on the production of HFCs, like the one released on Chrofluoro carbons ( CFCs) released about a decade back.
Kyrgyzstan needs to cold use of products containing ozone-depleting substances by 2040 under the Montreal Protocol, according to a session of the parliamentary committee on agrarian policy, water resources, environment and regional development.
The CCAC action plan consists of support for beginning negotiations in 2014 of an amendment to phase down the production and consumption of HFCs under the Montreal Protocol, the promotion of gradual public procurement of climate-friendly low-global warming potential alternatives to HFCs when feasible and support for private-sector organized efforts, including a Global Refrigerant Management Initiative on HFCs in servicing and a Global Food Cold Chain Council to reduce HFC emissions and increase efficiency in the cold food supply chain.
Damascus, SANA -- Minister of State for Environment Affairs Nazira Sarkis said Syria is among the top countries to have met its obligations under the international environment conventions to which it acceded, citing Vienna Convention and Montreal Protocol for the protection of the Ozone Layer.
This international day was proclaimed as such by a resolution adopted by the United Nations General Assembly in 1994 and the Montreal Protocol which was designed to protect the ozone layer by phasing out the production of numerous substances that are responsible for ozone depletion.
WASHINGTON (CyHAN)- Almost 30 years after the Montreal Protocol put the brakes on ozone-depleting chemicals, one compound remains stubbornly and mysteriously abundant in the atmosphere.
The Sultanate's attention to the preservation of the ozone layer came after it signed Vienna Convention for the Protection of the Ozone Layer, Montreal Protocol on Substances that Deplete the Ozone Layer and its amendments in London 1990 and Copenhagen 1992 as per the Royal Decree No.

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