Montreal Protocol


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Montreal Protocol,

officially the Protocol on Substances That Deplete the Ozone Layer, treaty signed on Sept. 16, 1987, at Montreal by 25 nations; 168 nations are now parties to the accord. The protocol set limits on the production of chlorofluorocarbonschlorofluorocarbons
(CFCs), organic compounds that contain carbon, chlorine, and fluorine atoms. CFCs are highly effective refrigerants that were developed in response to the pressing need to eliminate toxic and flammable substances, such as sulfur dioxide and ammonia, in
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 (CFCs), halons, and related substances that release chlorine or bromine to the ozone layerozone layer
or ozonosphere,
region of the stratosphere containing relatively high concentrations of ozone, located at altitudes of 12–30 mi (19–48 km) above the earth's surface.
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 of the atmosphere. On the basis of increasing scientific knowledge about the effects of CFCs and halons on the ozone layer, the original protocol has been amended several times. At meetings in London (1990), Copenhagen (1992), Vienna (1995), and Montreal (1997) amendments were adopted that were designed to speed up the phasing out of ozone-depleting substances; not all parties to the main protocol are parties to these amendments. The production and consumption of halons was phased out by Jan. 1, 1994, and of CFCs, carbon tetrachloride, methyl chloroform, and hydrobromofluorocarbons by Jan. 1, 1996, subject to an exception for agreed essential users. Methyl bromide was to be phased out by 2005 but a number of users of the chemical have won temporary exceptions from the ban, and hydrochlorofluorocarbons are to be phased out by 2020. (Phaseout dates are later for developing countries.)

Under the protocol, the ozone-depleting potential, or ODP, of any substance is measured with respect to an equal mass of CCl3F, or CFC-11, which is assigned a value of 1.0. Most other CFCs have ODPs that range from about 0.5 to about 1.3. Hydrochlorofluorocarbons, which are being used as transitional replacements (until 2020) for CFCs in refrigeration, have ODPs that are generally less than 0.5. Hydrofluorocarbons, which are also replacing CFCs as refrigerants, have ODPs of zero. Ozone-depleting potentials are based on existing scientific knowledge and are to be reviewed and revised periodically.

Bibliography

See D. E. Newton, The Ozone Dilemma (1995).

References in periodicals archive ?
It is funded from the Multilateral Fund (MLF), the financial aid mechanism set up for developing countries for their projects in line with the Montreal Protocol.
Federal Minister for Climate Change, Senator Mushahidullah Khan, has said that Pakistan would continue to support global efforts and contribute to protect human health and environment by completely phasing out the use of ozone-layer-depleting substances (ODSs) in the country and replacing them with more effective and environmentally-safer alternatives in line with the Montreal Protocol.
ISLAMABAD -- Minister for Climate Change Senator Mushahidullah Khan has said that Pakistan will continue to support global efforts and contribute to protect human health and environment by completely phasing out the use of ozone-layer-depleting substances (ODSs) and replacing them with more effective and environmentally-safer alternatives in line with the Montreal Protocol.
In the era of Thatcherism and Reaganomics, the United Nations reached a pinnacle in human teamwork by adopting the Montreal Protocol, gradually banning the production of chlorofluorocarbons (CFCs).
While India stayed strictly non-committal at the G-20 meet on ratifying the Paris agreement on climate change despite considerable pressure from the Obama administration, hectic negotiations are on to get India to relax its position on the Montreal Protocol ahead of the global meet in October.
VIENNA, July 22 (KUNA) -- The State of Kuwait on Friday affirmed its adherence to the Montreal Protocol on cutting contaminating emissions and expressed readiness to discuss any proposed plan aimed at safeguarding the environment.
TAP) - Tunisia takes part on July 18-21, 2016 in Vienna in the meeting of the working group open to all signatories of the Montreal Protocol on Substances that Deplete the Ozone Layer, knowing that the country managed to achieve 46 projects with a cost of $ 11 million in order to mitigate emissions of greenhouse gases, according to a statement released Wednesday by the Ministry of Environment and Sustainable Development.
ISLAMABAD -- Federal Minister for Climate Change Zahid Hamid Tuesday said Pakistan was committed to fulfill its obligation under the Montreal Protocol to eliminate Ozone Depleting Substances (ODS).
The 27th meeting of the Parties to the Montreal Protocol was welcomed by Dr Rashid Ahmad Bin Fahd, Minister of Environment and Water.
In 1994, the UN General Assembly proclaimed 16 September the International Day for the Preservation of the Ozone Layer, commemorating the date of the signing, in 1987, of the Montreal Protocol on Substances that Deplete the Ozone Layer (resolution 49/114).
The success of the Montreal Protocol shows that the world can come together to deal with environmental threats.
WASHINGTON (CyHAN)- Almost 30 years after the Montreal Protocol put the brakes on ozone-depleting chemicals, one compound remains stubbornly and mysteriously abundant in the atmosphere.

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