Montreal Protocol

(redirected from Montreal Protocol on Substances That Deplete the Ozone Layer)

Montreal Protocol,

officially the Protocol on Substances That Deplete the Ozone Layer, treaty signed on Sept. 16, 1987, at Montreal by 25 nations; 168 nations are now parties to the accord. The protocol set limits on the production of chlorofluorocarbonschlorofluorocarbons
(CFCs), organic compounds that contain carbon, chlorine, and fluorine atoms. CFCs are highly effective refrigerants that were developed in response to the pressing need to eliminate toxic and flammable substances, such as sulfur dioxide and ammonia, in
..... Click the link for more information.
 (CFCs), halons, and related substances that release chlorine or bromine to the ozone layerozone layer
or ozonosphere,
region of the stratosphere containing relatively high concentrations of ozone, located at altitudes of 12–30 mi (19–48 km) above the earth's surface.
..... Click the link for more information.
 of the atmosphere. On the basis of increasing scientific knowledge about the effects of CFCs and halons on the ozone layer, the original protocol has been amended several times. At meetings in London (1990), Copenhagen (1992), Vienna (1995), and Montreal (1997) amendments were adopted that were designed to speed up the phasing out of ozone-depleting substances; not all parties to the main protocol are parties to these amendments. The production and consumption of halons was phased out by Jan. 1, 1994, and of CFCs, carbon tetrachloride, methyl chloroform, and hydrobromofluorocarbons by Jan. 1, 1996, subject to an exception for agreed essential users. Methyl bromide was to be phased out by 2005 but a number of users of the chemical have won temporary exceptions from the ban, and hydrochlorofluorocarbons are to be phased out by 2020. (Phaseout dates are later for developing countries.)

Under the protocol, the ozone-depleting potential, or ODP, of any substance is measured with respect to an equal mass of CCl3F, or CFC-11, which is assigned a value of 1.0. Most other CFCs have ODPs that range from about 0.5 to about 1.3. Hydrochlorofluorocarbons, which are being used as transitional replacements (until 2020) for CFCs in refrigeration, have ODPs that are generally less than 0.5. Hydrofluorocarbons, which are also replacing CFCs as refrigerants, have ODPs of zero. Ozone-depleting potentials are based on existing scientific knowledge and are to be reviewed and revised periodically.

Bibliography

See D. E. Newton, The Ozone Dilemma(1995).

References in periodicals archive ?
The Montreal Protocol on Substances that Deplete the Ozone Layer is a global agreement to protect the stratospheric ozone layer through measures to control production and consumption of ozone-depleting substances.
The Montreal Protocol on Substances that Deplete the Ozone Layer is an international treaty designed to protect the ozone layer by phasing out the production of numerous substances that are responsible for ozone depletion.
Bahrain is joining the world for the 27th year running in celebrating the International Day for the Preservation of the Ozone Layer which is a commemoration of the date when 198 countries signed the Montreal Protocol on Substances that Deplete the Ozone Layer in 1987.
As per the bylaw, the import or export or re-export of ozone depleting materials from or to countries that are not members of Montreal Protocol on Substances that Deplete the Ozone Layer is banned.
He also submitted the ratification document for the Vienna Convention for Protection of Ozone Layer, the Montreal Protocol on Substances that Deplete the Ozone Layer, and the Copenhagen Amendments of 1992, Montreal of 1997 and Beijing of 1999 to the Montreal Protocol.
The Montreal Protocol on Substances that Deplete the Ozone Layer is not merely a success in meeting its immediate objectives, it offers substantive lessons and inspiration in addressing other global challenges and turning them into opportunities for common progress.
In so doing, these countries committed themselves, via the Montreal Protocol on Substances that Deplete the Ozone Layer, to rid the world of substances that threaten the ozone layer.
Like other inhalers that contain CFCs that deplete the ozone layer, the inhaler is being phased out because of the Montreal Protocol on Substances That Deplete the Ozone Layer, which makes it illegal to sell or make substances that decrease the ozone layer.
celebrates International Day for the Preservation of the Ozone Layer, designated by the United Nations General Assembly to commemorate the signing of the Montreal Protocol on Substances that Deplete the Ozone Layer.
The United Nations first declared International Ozone Day on December 19, 1994, in commemoration of the date on which countries signed the Montreal Protocol on substances that deplete the Ozone Layer in 1987.
The 193 Parties to the Montreal Protocol on Substances that Deplete the Ozone Layer - representing virtually all countries of the world - have agreed for the second year in a row to strengthen their treaty to provide additional protection for both the ozone layer and the climate system.
The Methyl Bromide Technical Options Committee was established by the Parties to the Montreal Protocol on Substances that Deplete the Ozone Layer to identify existing and potential alternatives to methyl bromide (MB).

Full browser ?