Morris, Robert


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Morris, Robert,

1931–, American artist, b. Kansas City, Mo. He settled in New York City in 1960 and was allied in his early work with the simple, impersonal forms of minimalismminimalism,
schools of contemporary art and music, with their origins in the 1960s, that have emphasized simplicity and objectivity. Minimalism in the Visual Arts
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, e.g., an untitled 1965 work consisting of four blocks of gray fiberglass. He also often used mirrored surfaces in his sculpture. Implicit in his work is the idea that art can be made of anything. Morris's style and media have changed many times during his career. He has used nonrigid materials such as felt and even steam—precluding reproducible forms and emphasizing the process of art—and was also involved in conceptual artconceptual art,
art movement that began in the 1960s and stresses the artist's concept rather than the art object itself. Growing out of minimalism, conceptual art turned the artist's thoughts and ideas themselves into the primary artistic medium, appealing to the spectator's
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 and land artland art
or earthworks,
art form developed in the late 1960s and early 70s by Robert Smithson, Robert Morris, Michael Heizer, and others, in which the artist employs the elements of nature in situ or rearranges the landscape with earthmoving equipment.
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. He is known for his enormous multipart sculptures of the 1980s, which include a wide variety of materials, notably casts of body parts and skeletons. Morris has also experimented in performance artperformance art,
multimedia art form originating in the 1970s in which performance is the dominant mode of expression. Perfomance art may incorporate such elements as instrumental or electronic music, song, dance, television, film, sculpture, spoken dialogue, and storytelling.
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, incorporating dance, theater, and the plastic arts. He is a rigorous theorist of art and an influential teacher.

Morris, Robert,

1734–1806, American merchant, known as the "financier of the American Revolution," and signer of the Declaration of Independence, b. Liverpool, England. Morris emigrated to America in 1747 and was soon apprenticed to the merchant Charles Willing in Philadelphia. He showed an unusual aptitude for business and by 1754 became a partner in the firm with the son, Thomas Willing, after the elder Willing's death. He opposed British restrictions prior to the Revolution and served (1775–78) as a member of the Continental Congress. Morris voted against the original motion for independence in July, 1776, as premature, but signed the declaration in August. A member of various committees in Congress, Morris was particularly important in obtaining munitions and other supplies and in borrowing money to finance George Washington's army. Although Morris's vast mercantile interests profited greatly from his congressional activities, both he and his firm were acquitted by Congress of charges of fraud. After leaving Congress, Morris expanded his mercantile and investment operations independently of Willing and by 1781 was almost universally acknowledged as the most prominent merchant in America. The collapse of public credit led to his being appointed superintendent of finance (1781–84) by Congress. Morris labored hard and well in this office; he pressed the states for contributions, retrenched expenditures, took steps toward the establishment of a national mint, guided the organization of a national bank, and extensively used his personal credit to raise funds for the government. He framed, but failed to get Congress to approve, a fiscal program including funding at par of the national debt and the assumption of state debts; it paralleled Alexander Hamilton's program of 1790. Morris was later a member of the U.S. Constitutional Convention (1787) and served (1789–95) as U.S. Senator from Pennsylvania. His private business, continued in his terms of office, ultimately ended in bankruptcy as a result of the collapse of extensive land speculation. Morris was in debtors' prison from 1798 to 1801 and never recovered his fortune.

Bibliography

See biographies by E. P. Oberholtzer (1903, repr. 1968) and C. Rappleye (2010); W. G. Sumner, The Financier and the Finances of the American Revolution (1891, repr. 1968); C. L. Ver Steeg, Robert Morris, Revolutionary Financier (1954, repr. 1972).

Morris, Robert

(1734–1806) merchant, banker, public official; born in or near Liverpool, England. He came to Maryland about 1747 to work for his father, a tobacco exporter, then went to Philadelphia where he joined the Willings' shipping firm; by 1754 he had formed a partnership with Thomas Willing, and their mercantile firm became one of the most prosperous in the colonies. Although by no means a radical patriot, he objected to the Stamp Act of 1765; by 1775 he was recognizing a need for some action, but sent to the Continental Congress he only reluctantly signed the Declaration of Independence (1776). During the war, he remained in Philadelphia and provided crucial support, both moral and material, to George Washington; although Morris personally ended up profiting, he risked much of his own money in buying needed armaments for the colonial forces; he was acquitted (1779) by a congressional committe of charges that he had engaged in improper financial transactions. When the colonies realized they were on the brink of bankruptcy, the Continental Congress appointed him superintendent of finance and for three and one-half years (1781–84) he instituted strict financial policies—collecting taxes from the colonies, arranging for a loan from France, and securing the money to transport Washington's army to Yorktown, Va.; again, though, he mixed his own finances with those of the government—buying military supplies, for instance, with notes backed only by his own fortune. He remained active in public life, attending the Constitutional Convention of 1787 and then serving a term as one of Pennsylvania's first two senators (Fed., 1789–95). His speculations in western land led to the collapse of his financial empire and he spent three and one-half years in debtors' prison in Philadelphia (1798–1801). On his release he lived out his final years in poor health and was all but forgotten by his countrymen.

Morris, Robert

(1931–  ) sculptor, mixed media artist; born in Kansas City, Mo. He studied engineering and art, moved to San Francisco (1950), was active as a painter and in improvisatory theater, then settled in New York City (1961). There he specialized in minimalist works, earthwork projects, and scatter pieces.
References in periodicals archive ?
Liam Millerchip, Chris Speakman, Victoria Dalton, Joseph Saunders, Francesca Davidson, Katie Warren, Emily Hancock, Joshua Morris, Robert White, Kim Neale, Matthew Warren, Katie Oliver, Kieran Turner, Steven Usher, Luke Barrar, Silvia Saunders, James Ensor, Richie Morgan, and Jenny Oliver.
to New York in 1967, and Leider immediately began to publish the first writings of Dan Flavin, Robert Morris, Robert Smithson, and Sol LeWitt.
The tries came from Darren Griffiths (2), Gareth Morris, Robert Hill, James Donovan and Austin Howells, who notched three conversions, while Ponty picked up tries from Phil Rowe (2) and Mark Jones, to go with two conversions from Justin Lloyd.
Neil Jenkins, David Young, Garin Jenkins, Martyn Williams, Kevin Morgan, Paul John, Darren Morris, Robert Sidoli, Chris Bridges, Michael Owen, Paul Knight, Mark Rowley, Craig Morgan, Geraint Lewis, Mike Griffiths, Lee Jarvis, Greg Prosser, Gary Jones, Jonathan Mason and Staff Jones.
FUN IN STORE: Celebrating the cash award that will help to pay for camp activities are (back, from left) Stephen Agg, Tom Wiseman, Michael Goldfinch, Christine Goldfinch, Kelly Simon and David Collins and (front) Toni Morris, Robert Aitken and Mahala Martin.
Subs not used: Baxendale, Lalkovic, Morris, Roberts
In a series of disciplinary hearings conducted by Morris, Roberts and three colleagues were charged with misconduct.
COLWYN BAY: Parry, Morris, Roberts, Keegan, Covereley, Rodgers, Orlik, Johnson (Nottage 78) Spike, C Davies, Maloney (Garside 65).