Moscow

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Moscow

(mŏs`kou, –kō), Rus. Moskva, city (1991 est. pop. 8,802,000), capital of Russia and of Moscow region and the administrative center of the Central federal district, W central European Russia, on the Moskva River near its junction with the Moscow Canal. Moscow is Russia's largest city and a leading economic and cultural center. Moscow is governed by a city council and a mayor and is divided into boroughs. The five major sections of Moscow form concentric circles, of which the innermost is the Kremlin (see under kremlinkremlin
, Rus. kreml, citadel or walled center of several Russian cities; the most famous is in Moscow. During the Middle Ages, the kremlin served as an administrative and religious center and offered protection against military attacks.
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), a walled city in itself. Its walls represent the city limits as of the late 15th cent. The hub of the Russian railroad network, Moscow is also an inland port and has several civilian and military airports. Moscow's major industries include machine building, metalworking, oil refining, publishing, brewing, filmmaking, and the manufacture of machine tools, precision instruments, building materials, automobiles, trucks, aircraft, chemicals, wood and paper products, textiles, clothing, footwear, and soft drinks.

Points of Interest

Adjoining the Kremlin in the east is the huge Red Square, originally a marketplace and a meeting spot for popular assemblies; it is still used as a parade ground and for demonstrations. On the west side of Red Square and along the Kremlin wall are the Lenin Mausoleum and the tombs of other Soviet political figures; on the north side is the completely rebuilt Kazan Cathedral (constructed in the 17th cent., razed by Stalin, and rebuilt in 1993); and at the southern end stands the imposing cathedral of Basil the Beatified (constructed 16th cent.). One of the most exuberant examples of Russian architecture, the cathedral has numerous cupolas, each a different color, grouped around a central dome. In front of the cathedral stands a monument to the liberators Menin and Pozharski.

To the E of Red Square extends the old district of Kitaigorod [Tatar city], once the merchants' quarter, later the banking section, and now an administrative hub with various government offices and ministries. Tverskaya Street (formerly Gorky Street), a main thoroughfare, extends N from the Kremlin and is lined with modern buildings, including the headquarters of the council of ministers; it is connected with the St. Petersburg highway, which passes the huge Dynamo stadium and the central airport. Near the beginning of Tverskaya Street is Theater Square, containing the Bolshoi and Maly theaters. Encircling the Kremlin and Kitaigorod are the Bely Gorod [white city], traditionally the most elegant part of Moscow and now a commercial and cultural area; the Zemlyanoy Gorod [earth city], named for the earthen and wooden ramparts that once surrounded it; and the inner suburbs. In the Bely Gorod is Christ the Savior Cathedral; demolished in 1931 to be replaced by a never-built Palace of Soviets, it was rebuilt in the 1990s. A notable feature of Moscow are the concentric rings of wide boulevards and railroad lines on the sites where old walls and ramparts once stood.

Except for its historical core, Moscow was transformed into a sprawling, often drab, but well-planned modern city under the Soviets. Post-Soviet Moscow has seen renewed construction, including the Triumph-Palace (866 ft/264 m, 2003), which echoes Stalin's Gothic-influenced Seven Sisters skyscrapers and is the tallest building in Europe. The tallest freestanding structure in Moscow is the Ostankino Tower (1967), a broadcast tower and tourist attraction that rises 1,771 ft (540 m). Among Moscow's many cultural and scientific institutions are the Moscow State Univ. (founded 1755), the Russian Academy of Sciences (founded 1725 in St. Petersburg and moved to Moscow in 1934), a conservatory (1866), the Tretyakov art gallery (opened in the 1880s), the Museum of Oriental Cultures, the State Historical Museum, the Agricultural Exhibition, the Institute of World Economy and International Relations (IMEMO), the Plekhanov Economic Academy, the Moscow State Law Academy, the Moscow Energy Institute, and the Peoples' Friendship Univ. of Russia (for foreign students). Theaters include the Moscow Art TheaterMoscow Art Theater,
Russian repertory company founded in 1897 by Constantin Stanislavsky and Vladimir Nemirovich-Danchenko. Its work created new concepts of theatrical production and marked the beginning of modern theater.
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, the Bolshoi (opera and ballet), and the Maly Theater (drama). Moscow is the see of a patriarch, head of the Russian Orthodox Church. The many large parks and recreation areas include Gorky Central Park, the forested Izmailovo and Sokolniki parks, and Ostankino Park, with its botanical gardens. The ornate subway system opened in 1935.

History

Although archaeological evidence indicates that the site has been occupied since Neolithic times, the village of Moscow was first mentioned in the Russian chronicles in 1147. Moscow became (c.1271) the seat of the grand dukes of Vladimir-Suzdal, who later assumed the title of grand dukes of Moscow (see Moscow, grand duchy ofMoscow or Muscovy, grand duchy of,
state existing in W central Russia from the late 14th to mid-16th cent., with the city of Moscow as its nucleus.
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). During the rule of Dmitri DonskoiDmitri Donskoi
, 1350–89, Russian hero, grand duke of Moscow (1359–89). He successfully resisted Lithuanian attempts to invade Moscow, and was the first Russian prince since the Mongol conquest who dared to wage open war on the Tatars.
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 the first stone walls of the Kremlin were built (1367). Moscow, or Muscovy, achieved dominance through its location at the crossroads of trade routes, its leadership in the struggle against and defeat of the Tatars, and its gathering of neighboring principalities under Muscovite suzerainty.

By the 15th cent. Moscow had become the capital of the Russian national state, and in 1547 Grand Duke Ivan IV became the first to assume the title of czar. Moscow was also the seat of the Metropolitan (later Patriarch) of the Russian Orthodox Church from the early 14th cent. It has been an important commercial center since the Middle Ages and the center of many crafts. Burned by the Tatars in 1381 and again in 1572, the city was taken by the Poles during the Time of Troubles (see RussiaRussia,
officially the Russian Federation,
Rus. Rossiya, republic (2005 est. pop. 143,420,000), 6,591,100 sq mi (17,070,949 sq km). The country is bounded by Norway and Finland in the northwest; by Estonia, Latvia, Belarus, and Ukraine in the west; by Georgia
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). In 1611 the Muscovites, under the leadership of Kuzma Minin (a butcher) and Prince Dmitri PozharskiPozharski, Dmitri Mikhailovich, Prince
, 1578–1642, Russian hero. During the "Time of Troubles" (1598–1613), when various pretenders vied for the Russian throne, he fought against the Poles, who, taking advantage of unstable political conditions, had invaded Russia.
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, attacked the Polish garrison and forced the remaining Polish troops to surrender in 1612. The large-scale growth of manufacturing in 17th-century Moscow, which necessitated an outlet to the sea, was instrumental in Peter IPeter I
or Peter the Great,
1672–1725, czar of Russia (1682–1725), major figure in the development of imperial Russia. Early Life

Peter was the youngest child of Czar Alexis, by Alexis's second wife, Natalya Naryshkin.
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's decision to build St. Petersburg on the Baltic. The capital was transferred to St. Petersburg in 1712, but Moscow's cultural and social life continued uninterrupted, and the city remained Russia's religious center.

Built largely of wood until the 19th cent., Moscow suffered from numerous fires, the most notable of which occurred in the wake of Napoleon I's occupation in 1812. Count RostopchinRostopchin, Feodor Vasilyevich, Count
, 1763–1826, Russian general and statesman. He rose rapidly under Czar Paul I, serving as foreign minister from 1798–1800. He was made a count in 1799. In 1812, Czar Alexander I appointed him governor-general of Moscow.
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 denied accusations that he had ordered the blaze ignited to drive out the French. The fire was most likely accidentally begun by French looters and was fanned by fanatic patriots among the few Russians who had remained behind when Napoleon entered the city. Whatever the cause, the fire sparked an anti-French uprising among the peasants, whose raids, along with the cruel winter, helped force Napoleon's retreat.

Rebuilt, Moscow developed from the 1830s as a major textile and metallurgical center. During the 19th and early 20th cent. it was the focus of the zemstvozemstvo
[Rus., from zemlya=land], local assembly that functioned as a body of provincial self-government in Russia from 1864 to 1917. The introduction of the zemstvo system was one of the major liberal reforms in the reign of Alexander II.
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 cooperative and Slavophile movements and became a principal center of the labor movement and of social democracy. In 1918 the Soviet government transferred the capital back to Moscow and fostered spectacular economic growth in the city, whose population doubled between 1926 and 1939 and again between 1939 and 1992. During World War II Moscow was the goal of a two-pronged German offensive. Although the spearheads of the German columns were stopped only 20 to 25 mi (32–40 km) from the city's center, Moscow suffered virtually no war damage. The city hosted the Olympic Games in 1980.

Due to inadequate public funds, Moscow's infrastructure suffered after the 1991 demise of the Soviet Union. Also, an increase in automobile ownership brought traffic congestion and worsened air pollution. The city, however, began to attract foreign investment and became increasingly westernized. In the 1990s its energetic mayor, Yuri Luzhkov, launched many ambitious reconstruction projects and by the end of the decade Moscow was experiencing a real-estate boom.


Moscow

(mŏs`kō), city (1990 pop. 18,519), seat of Latah co., NW Idaho, at the Wash. line; inc. 1887. It is a trade center for a lumber and farm area where wheat, peas, lentils, and dairy items are produced. There are factories that manufacture semiconductors, erosion control blankets, concrete, and wooden cabinets. Originally part of the Nez Percé Reservation, it was first settled by whites in 1871. The Univ. of Idaho is there, as well as a historical museum and a U.S. government forest sciences laboratory.

Moscow

 

Moscow is the capital of the USSR and the RSFSR and the administrative center of Moscow Oblast. It is the country’s leading political, scientific, industrial, and cultural center and one of the world’s most important cities in these respects. Moscow has been designated a Hero City. Among the world’s most populous cities, Moscow ranks first in public services and amenities and relatively clean air. Located in the industrial Central Economic Region, it is a nexus of the country’s transportation routes.

Moscow lies in the central part of the European USSR, between the Oka and Volga rivers. It is situated on the Moskva River at an average elevation of 120 m. The city’s highest points are in the southwest, where the Teplyi Stan Upland (with elevations exceeding 200 m) descends toward the Moskva River, and in the northwest, around Khimki Reservoir, situated along the edge of the Moscow Upland’s southern slope. The eastern and southeastern parts of the city lie on the edge of the flat Meshchera Lowland. Many features of the terrain are linked with the changes brought about by many centuries of human habitation. The “cultural stratum,” consisting of reworked earth with remnants of old foundations and pavements, reaches 10 to 20 m in the heart of the city.

The climate is moderately continental. The average temperature during the coldest month (January) is —10.2°C; the absolute minimum is —42°C. The warmest month is July (18.1°C), and the highest recorded temperature in the shade was 36.8°C. The temperature in the city’s central areas differs considerably from that of the outskirts. In winter the temperature in the outlying areas is sometimes 10° to 13° lower than in the center. The average annual precipitation is 582 mm, most of which occurs in July. About 150 streams and brooks flow through the city; the largest tributaries of the Moskva River within the city limits are the Iauza and Setun’. Most of the smaller streams and brooks flowing into the Moskva, such as the Neglinnaia, Presnia, and Khodynka, have been channeled into underground pipelines. Moscow has about 240 open bodies of water covering an area of more than 820 hectares.

Since the October 1917 Revolution, Moscow’s territory has increased fivefold. By directives of the Presidium of the Supreme Soviet of the RSFSR, issued Aug. 18, 1960, and Nov. 11, 1961, the city limits were established along the Moscow Beltway, so that Moscow now includes the former cities of Babushkin, Liublino, Kuntsevo, Perovo, and Tushino, as well as a number of settlements and other population centers (see Table 1). In addition to the area within the Beltway, the Moscow City Council of Workers’ Deputies administers Zelenograd and a number of settlements beyond the Beltway: Vnukovo, Vostochnyi, Meshcherskii, Nekrasovka, Rublevo, Severnyi, and Zapadnyi.

The extension of Moscow’s city limits has stimulated the construction of housing, cultural and consumer facilities, and an improved communal services system (including public utilities). It has also led to an expansion of the city’s public services and amenities. Much attention has been given to the creation of public parks and gardens, now covering 30.7 percent of the city’s total area.

Table 1. Growth of Moscow’s territory (in sq km, at end of years cited)
  1917196019701972
1 This change in area resulted from the more precise definition of Moscow’s city limits in 1971
Total area.......... 176.9884.8878878.71
 Built-up land..........124.4639.5747.6777.7
 Public parks and gardens..........21.555.6242.1269.5

Moscow is the capital of a multinational state. Among its inhabitants are members of the nationalities of all the Union and autonomous republics, the autonomous oblasts, and national okrugs, as well as representatives of many other nationalities and ethnic groups. According to the 1970 census, 89 percent of the residents were Russians (Moscow’s population growth is shown in Table 2).

Table 2. Growth of Moscow’s population
 Total InhabitantsMen (percent)
1912 (census of Mar. 19)1, 618, 00054.3
1939 (census of Jan. 17)4, 542, 00046.5
1959 (census of Jan. 15)6, 044, 00042.6
1970 (census of Jan. 15)7, 061, 00044.0

As of Jan. 1, 1974, the city had 7.5 million inhabitants and an average population density of 8, 300 persons per sq km.

Large-scale housing construction and the rapid growth of the city have resulted in a redistribution of the population, chiefly from the city’s center to the newer districts. Consequently, a directive was issued by the Presidium of the Supreme Soviet of the RSFSR on Nov. 25, 1968, forming 29 raions in place of the previous 17.

The city’s local agency of state power is the Moscow City Council of Workers’ Deputies, elected by the city’s inhabitants for a two-year term; there is one deputy for every 6, 000 voters. The fourteenth convocation of the Moscow Council, elected on June, 17, 1973, comprised 1, 160 deputies. The Moscow Council is convened regularly at least four times a year and considers questions within its exclusive jurisdiction as defined by law. It ratifies plans for developing the municipal economy, the municipal budget, and plans for carrying out voters’ instructions. The Moscow Council forms its own executive bodies and standing committees and discusses reports concerning their work. The council has created 19 standing committees consisting of 473 deputies. They are the committees for mandates, budget planning, industry, transportation and communications, construction and the building-materials industry, housing, public education, culture, youth affairs, public health, trade, consumer services, communal services (such as utilities), socialist legality and the maintenance of public order, social services and amenities, city planning, public food service, social security, and physical education and sports. The committees supervise the work of the corresponding departments and boards, and they implement the resolutions of the council and its executive committee, as well as their own recommendations.

The executive and administrative body of the Moscow Council is its executive committee, formed from among the deputies attending the first session of each new convocation of the council and functioning for the duration of the convocation. The executive committee consists of 25 deputies, including a committee chairman, nine deputy chairmen, a secretary and 14 committee members; the chairman, deputy chairmen, and committee secretary form the council’s presidium. Between sessions of the council the executive committee carries out all the council’s administrative functions, with the exception of those powers that are reserved to the council alone.

The executive committee’s administrative apparatus consists of the chairman’s secretariats, the deputy chairmen, the committee’s secretary, supervisory groups, an organizational and instructional department, and a general department. To administer the various branches of the city’s economy and culture, the Moscow Council has formed central boards, functional boards, and branch boards. There are central boards for architecture and city planning, housing and civil engineering, industrial construction, construction of engineering works, capital construction, the building-materials industry, truck transport, housing facilities, commerce, public food service, public health, culture, and internal affairs. Among the functional boards are a finance board, a planning commission, a board for technical personnel and educational institutions, and a board for foreign relations. Branch boards have been created to maintain roads and manage public services and amenities, fuel and power, water supply and sewage, passenger transportation, woods and parks, and motion-picture facilities. There are also departments dealing with public education, social security, archives, veterinary services, prices, and premises other than housing.

The people of each raion elect for a two-year term a raion council of workers’ deputies, which functions as an agency of state authority. The raion councils elect their own executive bodies, the executive committees.

The oldest traces of human settlement on the territory of Moscow date from the Stone Age (the Shchukino Neolithic site on the Moskva River). Within the present city limits a considerable number of archaeological remains from later periods have been discovered at a burial ground belonging to the Bronze Age Fat’ianovo culture unearthed near the village of Davydkovo and at the sites of fortified towns of the D’iakovo culture, discovered near the village of D’iakovo not far from Kolomenskoe, in the Kremlin, on the Lenin Hills, along the Setun’ River, and in the Kuntsevo park. Many relics dating from the period of primitive communal society have been unearthed in various sections of Moscow.

At the end of the first millennium A.D. the area was inhabited by Slavs—the Viatichi and, to the northwest of present-day Moscow, the Krivichi. Clusters of barrows near the Iauza railroad station and in Tsaritsyno, Chertanovo, Kon’kovo, Derevlevo, Ziuzino, Cheremushki, Matveevskoe, Fili, and Tushino attest to the existence of Viatichi villages between the 11th and 13th centuries. The Viatichi were the primary nucleus of the population of Moscow.

Excavations conducted in the Kremlin and the Zariad’e have shown that at the end of the 11th century Moscow was a small town situated at the mouth of the Neglinnaia River with a feudal stronghold and a small artisan and trading suburb. The tip of the promontory between the Neglinnaia and Moskva rivers was protected by a rampart and moat extending along the southwestern corner of the present Great Kremlin Palace. The unfortified part of the town reached about as far as the present Kremlin Palace of Congresses; along the bank of the Moskva River the town extended considerably farther, to the present Hotel Rossiia, where there was probably a landing. The oldest finds—fragments of glazed vessels and a seal of the Kievan metropolitanate (no later than 1096)—attest to trade and political links between Moscow and Kiev. The city is first mentioned in the chronicles (as Moskov) under the year 1147 as a possession of the Suzdal’ prince Iurii Dolgorukii. According to the chronicles, a new and larger fortress was built in 1156; part of its wooden structure was uncovered in 1960 in digging the foundation for the Kremlin Palace of Congresses. The area encompassed by the fortress tripled, and the artisans’ and merchants’ suburb covered the entire bank of the Moscow River adjacent to the fortress, reaching the present Arsenal in the Kremlin in the north. In the first half of the 13th century, Moscow became an appanage and was sometimes bestowed on the younger sons of the grand princes of Vladimir. Devastated by the Mongol-Tatars during the winter of 1237–38, it was soon rebuilt. In the second half of the 13th century, Moscow became the center of an independent principality; the founder of its princely dynasty was Daniil Aleksandrovich, the son of Alexander Nevsky.

Moscow owed its growth and ascendancy chiefly to its location at the intersection of trade routes and to its central position in the Slavic lands where the Russian nationality was evolving. Another important factor was the development of its crafts (iron working, jewelry-making, and the production of leather and footwear), commerce, and agriculture. During the 14th century Moscow emerged as the center of the Grand Principality of Moscow, one of the most powerful principalities in northeastern Russia. From the time of Iurii Danilovich (1281–1325), the Muscovite princes occupied the throne of the Grand Principality of Vladimir. In the 14th century, Moscow became the residence of the Russian metropolitans, and in 1589 it became the seat of the patriarchs and the ecclesiastical capital of Russia. During the second half of the 14th century, during the reign of Dmitrii Ivanovich Donskoi, Moscow led the Russian people’s struggle against the Mongol-Tatar yoke. In the 14th and first half of the 15th centuries, Moscow was a large city with many artisans and merchants, who lived in the suburb known as the Great Posad (later Kitai-Gorod) and in settlements in the Zarech’e (later Zamoskvorech’e) area beyond the Moskva River, in the Zaneglimen’e west of the Neglinnaia River, and later in the Zaiauz’e beyond the Iauza River.

In the last quarter of the 15th century, during the reign of the Grand Prince Ivan III Vasil’evich, Moscow became the capital of a centralized Russian state, which in 1480 threw off the Mongol-Tatar yoke. As its political importance grew, Moscow also became the country’s most important economic and cultural center. Production of weapons, fabrics, leather goods, pottery, and jewelry increased, and the building trades developed. The names of Moscow streets reflect the occupations of their former inhabitants, for example, Bronnye (weapons) streets, Kotel’nicheskaia (cauldrons) and Goncharnaia (pottery) quays, and Bol’shie and Malye Kamenshchiki (stonemasons) streets. The Pushechnyi Dvor (cannon foundry), where cannons and bells were cast, was established in the late 15th century. Muscovite architecture attained a high level (see below: Architecture and city planning). The development of crafts and trade stimulated population growth and territorial expansion. In the 16th century Moscow, essentially coinciding with the area within the present Sadovoe Ring, was larger than London, Prague, and other European cities. At the beginning of the 17th century the population fluctuated between 80, 000 (during the Polish-Lithuanian intervention) and 200, 000. By that time Moscow had wooden pavements and a good drainage system.

During the 16th and 17th centuries three rings of fortifications were erected, called Kitai-Gorod, Belyi Gorod, and Zemlianoi Gorod. At the time of the Polish-Lithuanian intervention the enemy succeeded in capturing Moscow on Sept. 21, 1610. The people’s struggle for the independence and unity of the Russian state culminated in the victory of the people’s militia led by Minin and Pozharskii and the expulsion of the foreign invaders from Moscow in October 1612. During the struggle against the invaders large areas were devastated; within a short time, however, the city was not only rebuilt but in many places even extended beyond the Zemlianoi rampart. Here, along the roads radiating in all directions, a new belt of tax-exempt settlements sprang up: the Dorogomilovskaia Iamskaia, Kudrinskaia, Novinskaia, Tverskaia Iamskaia, Sushchevskaia, Naprudnaia, Pereiaslavskaia Iamskaia, Alekseevskaia, Grecheskaia, Rogozhskaia Iamskaia, Kozhevnicheskaia, Semenovskaia, Vorontsovskaia, and Kolomenskaia Iamskaia.

During the 17th century Moscow was the center of an evolving Russian market, and its importance as an international market grew. Along with artisan workshops, the number of factory-type enterprises also increased: a second cannon foundry was established, as well as gunpowder factories, a shell and grenade factory, brickyards, the Khamovnaia Linen Factory, and a glassworks. Great changes also occurred in the city’s cultural life (see below: Education, science, and culture). Moscow’s population during the 17th century reflected the complex structure of the Russian feudal serf-owning state during the final stages of centralization, when a feudal-absolutist monarchy was emerging. Most of the inhabitants belonged to various feudally dependent groups, known as tiagletsy (persons required to pay taxes and perform labor services), living in the chernye slobody (artisans’ and traders’ suburbs administered by the state), in the kazennye slobody (state-owned settlements), and in the dvortsovye slobody attached to the tsar’s palace. The household serfs serving the boyars and nobility were another feudally dependent group. At the other end of the social spectrum were the secular and ecclesiastical aristocracy, high government officials, and rich merchants. Moscow was the seat of the tsar’s court with its numerous courtiers and had a garrison of streltsy (musketeers), who lived in the suburban settlements known as streletskie slobody. Profound social contrasts exacerbated class conflicts and gave impetus to the struggle of the urban lower classes against the city’s feudal and merchant upper classes. Moscow was the center of the antifeudal struggle of the masses during the 17th century, and the city’s working people took an active part in the peasant uprising led by I. I. Bolotnikov in 1606–07. The most important antifeudal urban uprisings were the Moscow uprising of 1648, the Moscow uprising of 1662, the Moscow uprising of 1682, and the streltsy uprising of 1698.

The 18th century saw the beginnings of urban self-government. An organ of local self-government called the Burmister-skaia Palata (soon renamed Town Hall) was created under the municipal reform of 1699. It was composed of burmistry, representatives elected at assemblies of the posadskie liudi (merchants and artisans). In 1720 the Town Hall was replaced by the Magistrat, whose members were elected not by all the posadskie liudi, but only by those of the “first rank”—rich merchants and manufacturers who belonged to the First Guild. After Peter I’s death the organs of Moscow’s municipal self-government were gradually transformed into an appendage of the tsarist administration. Moscow’s merchant elite came to play an ever larger role in municipal self-government, dominating the Six-Member Duma created in 1785.

After the transfer of Russia’s capital to St. Petersburg in 1712, Moscow became the “second capital” of the empire, but it retained its previous importance as a political, administrative, and cultural center. Almost all of Russia’s main government departments—the Senate, Synod, ministries, and central boards—had branches in Moscow. Industry developed, particularly the manufacture of textiles, and Moscow continued to be the most important commercial center. In 1708, Moscow became the administrative center of Moscow Province and the residence of its governor general. During the 18th century the class struggle became more acute, flaring up in the disturbances of workmen employed in Moscow’s factories during the 1720’s, 1730’s, and 1740’s, in the “plague revolt” of 1771, and in the strike at privately owned brickyards in July 1779. The popular masses of Moscow represented a genuine threat to the tsarist government during the peasant war led by E. I. Pugachev in 1773–75.

Moscow expanded rapidly, covering 8, 698 hectares by the mid-18th century. The construction of cobblestone pavements began in 1700, and a street-lighting system was introduced in November 1730. Between 1781 and 1804 the Mytishchi water pipeline, the first of its kind in Russia, was constructed to bring water from the Mytishchi springs to five fountains within the Sadovoe Ring, where the water was drawn by the townspeople.

In the early 19th century the city’s large factories employed tens of thousands of workers, and it became the country’s trading center, particularly for industrial products. The bourgeoisie, numerically predominating over the gentry element, strengthened its social position by accumulating capital and seizing the key positions in the city’s economy.

From the outbreak of the Patriotic War of 1812, Moscow organized the patriotic movement for the defense of the motherland: partisan detachments operated around the city and the Russian Army gathered its forces in its vicinity. Even Napoleon understood the role of Moscow as the center of Russia’s resistance. “If I take Kiev,” he said, “I will take Russia by the feet; if I capture St. Petersburg, I will take it by the head; but if I occupy Moscow, I will pierce it through the heart.” The battle of Borodino, fought near Moscow in 1812, was largely responsible for the collapse of Napoleon’s predatory plans. On September 2 (14), Napoleon’s troops entered Moscow, which had been abandoned by most of its inhabitants. The French Army remained in Moscow for 39 days. Retreating, Napoleon ordered the Kremlin blown up, but because of the threat of encirclement, the order was never carried out. The returning population found the city in ruins, but the Muscovites not only raised it out of the ashes and ruins, but made it even more beautiful.

After 1812, Moscow steadily declined as a gentry city. Capitalist industry grew; in 1814 about one-sixth of Russia’s workers were concentrated in Moscow enterprises. The population rose from more than 275, 000 in 1811, to 378, 000 in 1862, to more than 1 million in 1897. In its class structure Moscow became a capitalist city. This process accelerated in the late 19th and early 20th centuries, so that by 1902, Moscow had 108, 000 factory workers and 38, 000 railroad workers. By the late 19th century the city had become the country’s largest center of light industry. Its economic importance increased when it became the nexus of the Russian railroad network. A polarization occurred in the population’s social composition: the big bourgeoisie accounted for 2 percent of the economically active population and the proletarian and semiproletarian strata for 55 percent. The bourgeois-gentry center differed markedly from the workers’ districts on the outskirts. Typical of capitalist Moscow were the slums of Khitrovo Market, Drachevka, Zariad’e, and other areas.

Intracity affairs were conducted by the Municipal Duma, which had been established under the Statute of 1870 and was elected on the basis of property qualifications, thereby assuring the domination of the big bourgeoisie, factory owners, merchants, and rich gentry. In 1892 a new statute was implemented (remaining in effect until 1917), which limited even the few rights granted to townspeople by the Statute of 1870. The number of eligible voters was considerably reduced, declining from 3.4 percent of the population in 1870 to 0.5 percent in 1892.

Public transportation consisting of large wagonettes was introduced in the late 1840’s, and a railroad between Moscow and St. Petersburg was opened on Nov. 1, 1851. In 1867 many streets acquired gas lighting. Horse-drawn streetcars were introduced in 1872. That year a telegraph line connecting Moscow with St. Petersburg went into operation, and a telephone station was established in 1882. In 1883 arc lamps were installed near the Prechistenka Gate, present-day Kropotkin Square. On Dec. 31, 1898, the first intercity telephone line was opened between Moscow and St. Petersburg. Streetcars appeared in 1899, and a modern water supply system—the Moskvoretskaia system—was constructed in 1903 (a sewer system had been installed in the late 19th century). With respect to public services and amenities, the Municipal Duma pursued a class policy. The water supply system for the most part brought filtered water to houses situated within the Sadovoe Ring, inhabited chiefly by the well-to-do, and sewer lines were installed only in the vicinity of the main thoroughfares. More than half of the outlying streets were unpaved.

The entire history of the revolutionary movement in Russia during the 19th and early 20th centuries is linked with Moscow. The leading ideologists and organizers of the gentry revolutionary-Decembrist movement—P. I. Pestel’ and N. M. Murav’ev —were born and lived here. The future members of the Northern Society, notably P. G. Kakhovskii, V. F. Raevskii, and I. D. Iakushkin—were educated at the boarding school affiliated with Moscow University. A. I. Herzen’s revolutionary self-awareness developed here; on Vorob’evo Hills (now Lenin Hills) “in the sight of all Moscow,” Herzen, together with N. P. Ogarev, took an oath to sacrifice his life for the revolution if necessary. In the post-reform period the raznochintsy intelligentsia was imbued with revolutionary fervor. A branch of the secret Land and Liberty society functioned here during the 1860’s, as well as the Narodnik (Populist) Ishutin, Nechaev, and Dolgushin circles. In 1874 the Moscow worker P. A. Alekseev, aided by other working-class propagandists, began his revolutionary activity among textile workers at 20 Moscow factories. The city played an important role in the spread of Marxism in Russia. In the early 1890’s Marxist-oriented circles were organized in the city by V. A. Vannovskii, G. M. Krukovskii, G. N. Mandel’shtam, A. I. Riazanov, and N. N. Shaternikov. In 1894 the Moscow Marxist circles united to form the Moscow Workers’ Union, which helped organize the First Congress of the RSDLP. The Moscow Committee of the RSDLP was formed on Mar. 10, 1898.

In the early 20th century Moscow, along with St. Petersburg, was a leading center of monopoly capital in Russia. In 1900, Moscow’s 38 enterprises with 500 or more workers accounted for only 5.6 percent of all the factories in the city but employed 42.4 percent of all the workers. Moscow’s workers played a prominent role in the Revolution of 1905–07 in Russia. The political strike of October 1905, which they began, spread throughout Russia, and the December armed uprising in Moscow was the culminating point of the revolution. After the uprising was suppressed, the Moscow party organization adapted its work to the new, illegal conditions of struggle. Because they were well organized the Moscow Bolsheviks were able to go underground and still maintain their strong ties with the working class. During the reactionary years the Moscow Bolsheviks vigorously opposed the Mensheviks, the Liquidators, and the Otzovists and upheld the revolutionary Leninist policy. Under their leadership a widespread political movement developed among the workers of Moscow during the time of new revolutionary upsurge.

Table 3. Structure of industry
EnterprisesPercent of all enterprisesPercent of Enterprises workers
 1910191319101913
Less than 50 workers48.446.18.97.7
From 51 to 100 workers23.213.411.210.5
From 101 to 500 workers22.433.630.730.3
More than 500 workers6.06.949.251.5

In the years of industrial boom the number of large enterprises increased by 7 percent, from 909 in 1910 to 973 in 1913, and the number of workers grew by 16.8 percent, from 136, 400 to 159, 300. Moscow’s industry attained a high level of concentration (see Table 3). The greatest concentration occurred in the textile industry, in which factories with more than 500 workers employed 67.5 percent of all the textile workers. The leading textile factories were large capitalist enterprises such as the Prokhorov (Trekhgornaia) Factory and the Emil’ Tsindel’ Textile Printing Factory, each employing more than 2, 000 workers. In machine building and metalworking, 34.4 percent of all workers were employed at plants with more than 500 workers, such as the Bromlei Brothers Machine Plant, the Guzhon Metallurgical Plant, the Gakental’ Plant, and the Dangauer and Kaiser Plant. The process of concentration also spread to clothing manufacture, which had always been a handicraft industry. The factories of the Mandel’ and Raits Company alone employed approximately 2, 500 workers, or 28.5 percent of all garment workers in the city. The concentration of production was accompanied by the formation of industrial syndicates.

In addition to factories and plants there were many small-scale enterprises and domestic and artisans’ workshops. They employed a total of 245, 400 workers by 1913, of whom 104, 800 were handicraft workers. The period of industrial boom was marked by a growing influx of foreign capital. In Moscow all the electrical-engineering and chemical enterprises were controlled by foreigners, chiefly German firms, such as Siemens-Halske and the Russian General Electric Company.

After the victory of the bourgeois democratic revolution of February 1917, Moscow and Petrograd became the most important centers for the preparation of the Great October Socialist Revolution. After seven days of fighting, Soviet power emerged victorious in Moscow on the night of Nov. 3 (16), 1917. The victory of the October Revolution in Petrograd and subsequently in Moscow laid the foundation for the triumphant spread of Soviet power throughout the country. On Mar. 12, 1918, when the Soviet government moved from Petrograd to Moscow, the city became the capital of the world’s first socialist state. The Fifth All-Russian Congress of Soviets, which adopted Soviet Russia’s first constitution, was held here in July 1918. Since the Eighth Congress of the RCP (Bolshevik), all the congresses of the CPSU have been held in Moscow. In July 1918 the workers of Moscow under the leadership of V. I. Lenin suppressed the left Socialist-Revolutionary revolt. During the Civil War (1918–20), Moscow was the center from which the Bolshevik Party, the Soviet government, and V. I. Lenin directed the struggle against the White Guards and the interventionists. The Moscow party organization and the Moscow trade unions sent battle-hardened workers’ cadres into the Red Army and food-requisitioning detachments into the countryside, and they organized the sending of arms, ammunition, and uniforms to the front. Moscow’s workers struggled to prevent economic collapse and to restore industry, and they helped strengthen the administrative apparatus of the Soviet government and economic organizations. The labor heroism of Muscovites during the war years manifested itself in the communist subbotniki (unpaid mass workdays). Lenin maintained that “the great initiative” of Moscow’s workers laid the foundation for a new, communist attitude toward labor. The imperialist and civil wars wrecked Moscow’s economy and depleted its population. During the period of reconstruction Moscow’s entire industry was rebuilt, and the living standard of Moscow’s workers was raised. In the first years of Soviet power housing conditions were improved; many proletarian families were resettled in the comfortable homes formerly occupied by the bourgeoisie.

V. I. Lenin’s activity was closely associated with Moscow. Establishing contact with Moscow’s workers at the outset of his revolutionary career, he visited the city in 1893–95, 1897, 1900, and 1906 and met with representatives of the revolutionary proletariat. The Moscow party organization was established on the organizational, tactical, and ideological principles developed by Lenin, and the Leninist newspaper Iskra (Spark) played a large role in creating and strengthening the organization. Lenin lived and worked in Moscow from Mar. 11, 1918. Here he wrote many of his works and spent the last years of his life. A sarcophagus containing Lenin’s body has been placed in the mausoleum on Moscow’s Red Square. In memory of the leader, many enterprises, educational institutions, streets, and squares, as well as one of the city’s raions, have been named after Vladimir Il’ich Lenin. From 1920 to 1924, Lenin was elected a member of the Moscow city council. By the council’s decree of Feb. 7, 1924, Lenin was made a perpetual member of the council as a deputy of the Moscow workers, and since that time Deputy Card No. 1 has been assigned to him.

The First Congress of the Soviets, at which the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics was formed, was held in Moscow on Dec. 30, 1922. The All-Union Congresses of the Soviets, sessions of the Supreme Soviet of the USSR, and Congresses of the Communist Party convened in Moscow have adopted important resolutions determining the entire course of the Soviet Union’s socialist development. Moscow has been the center from which the country’s industrialization, collectivization of agriculture, and cultural revolution have been directed. Moscow’s workers have been active in creating the new Soviet society, strengthening the economy, advancing science and technology, and developing a socialist culture. The formation of the Comintern (Communist International) was announced in Moscow, and its congresses were held in the city.

During the years of socialist industrialization the city’s industrial structure changed. Textiles gave way to machine building and electrical engineering. In 1940, Moscow’s industrial output was 21 times that of 1913. The metalworking industry developed especially rapidly, its production increasing 96 times between 1913 and 1940. Large aviation and automotive plants were built and equipped with advanced technology. These industries played a large role in industrializing the country and strengthening its defense capabilities. The output of the textile and food and condiments industries increased sevenfold between 1913 and 1940.

During the prewar building of socialism the city’s population grew rapidly, rising from some 1.5 million inhabitants in 1923 to about 2.8 million in 1931 and about 3.6 million in 1936. There were radical changes in the population’s social composition: in 1912 the economically active segment of the population (industrial workers, office employees, servants) constituted 72.3 percent of the total and members of the exploiting classes accounted for 9 percent; by 1926 the latter category was reduced to 0.6 percent of the population. In 1939 industrial and office workers and their families represented 94.3 percent of Moscow’s population. The group of persons living on income not derived from their own labor had entirely disappeared.

In June 1931, at the plenary session of the Central Committee of the ACP (Bolshevik), a plan was worked out for a socialist reconstruction of Moscow’s municipal economy. On July 10, 1935, the Central Committee of the ACP(B) and the Council of People’s Commissars of the USSR adopted the resolution On the General Plan for the Reconstruction of Moscow. The 1930’s saw the development of all types of communal services (such as public utilities) and urban transport, particularly buses (introduced in 1924), trolleybuses (1933), and subways (1935). All principal squares and thoroughfares were paved with asphalt. The network of cultural, consumer, and medical institutions expanded.

During the Great Patriotic War (1941–45), Moscow was not only the political but also the military center of the country. It was from here that the Central Committee of the Communist Party, the Soviet government, the State Committee for Defense, and the General Headquarters of the Supreme Command directed military operations at the front and work in the rear. The workers of Moscow, like the entire Soviet people, resisted the fascist German invaders. During the first six months of the war alone, about 100, 000 Communists and 260, 000 Komsomol members (half of the Moscow Komsomol) joined the Red Army. In 1941, Muscovites formed 16 divisions of the people’s militia (more than 160, 000 persons), 25 assault battalions (18, 000), 25 local antiaircraft defense battalions, four repair and reconstruction regiments, and other units. By Oct. 1, 1941, 90, 600 persons were studying in the various branches of universal military training (Vsevobuch). Some 3, 600 self-defense groups (81, 600 persons) under the direction of housing offices, and about 13, 000 fire-fighting teams (more than 200, 000 persons) were formed. Some 450, 000 Muscovites built defense installations at the approaches to Moscow and within the city. By the beginning of August 1941 the inhabitants of Moscow had contributed 75 million rubles, 5, 247 gold coins, 7 kg of gold, and 340 kg of silver to the Fund for the Defense of the Motherland. The Moscow factories that were evacuated during the war became the basis for many new factories in the country’s eastern regions.

Between October 1941 and April 1942 the greatest battle of the Great Patriotic War—the battle of Moscow—was fought on the outskirts of the city. The fascist German Army suffered its first major defeat in World War II, dispelling the myth of its invincibility. The defeat of the fascist German troops outside Moscow enabled the city to increase its arms production and render more aid to the front. Heavy industry, particularly defense plants, gradually returned. New military units were formed, and hospitals were established. Moscow’s workers helped restore the economy in regions liberated from the occupation forces. On May 1, 1944, a medal For the Defense of Moscow was instituted, and a victory parade was held in Moscow on June 24, 1945. On Sept. 6, 1947, during the celebration of the city’s 800th anniversary, Moscow was awarded the Order of Lenin for its workers’ outstanding services to the motherland in the struggle against the fascist German invaders and for their success in building socialism. In commemoration of this historic moment a medal In Commemoration of the 800th Anniversary of Moscow was instituted.

Muscovites were in the vanguard of the Soviet people in the restoration and further development of the national economy in the postwar years. During the first postwar five-year plan (1946–50), Moscow became the most important center for technical progress in industry and for integrated mechanization and automation of production. In 1947, Moscow’s industry attained its prewar level of production, providing the country with 43 percent of its automobiles and trucks, 34 percent of its motorcycles, 42 percent of its bearings, 47 percent of its specialized and unit machine tools, 44 percent of its tools, 97 percent of its casting equipment, and 41 percent of its clocks and watches. Moscow’s construction industry was established during the fifth five-year plan (1951–55). By the end of 1958 dozens of specialized plants were producing various components for the prefabricated housing industry. Moscow’s large construction enterprises served as a basis and a model for developing this branch of the economy in the Soviet Union and the fraternal socialist countries. The city has played an important part in creating the material and technical base of communism. Between 1961 and 1965 the output of automatic and semiautomatic transfer lines increased 1.7 times; precision machine tools, 1.2 times; and automation equipment and instruments, 1.5 times. In 1965 the total output of Moscow’s industry was 509 percent that of 1940.

Muscovites have undertaken many patriotic projects, including the integrated mechanization and automation of production and drives to upgrade their trademarks and to produce goods comparable with the best domestic and foreign products.The mass movement for a communist attitude toward labor originated in Moscow. By the beginning of 1965, 513 plants and factories and 915 commercial enterprises and public dining facilities were competing for the title of Groups of Communist Labor. About 2 million Muscovites have participated in the movement. Some 40, 000 teams, shops, sections, and groups at 50 Moscow enterprises have won the honorary title of Communist.

More than 500, 000 workers have earned the honorary title of Shock Worker of Communist Labor. The all-Union competition for a fitting commemoration of the 50th anniversary of the Great October Revolution and the 100th anniversary of the birth of V. I. Lenin had its origin in Moscow. The Muscovites’ traditional socialist emulation with the workers of Leningrad has played a major role in their labor achievements.

The most important events of the postwar decades were the Nineteenth, Twentieth, Twenty-first, Twenty-second, Twenty-third, and Twenty-fourth Congresses of the CPSU. Their resolutions have played an important role in the life of the party and the people and in the development of Soviet society, and they have strengthened the Soviet Union’s authority in the international arena. In carrying out the resolutions of these congresses, the workers, guided by the Moscow Municipal Organization of the CPSU, have achieved new successes in developing the economy, science, and culture and in raising the standard of living for workers. Large-scale reconstruction of the city is under way.

Since the war Moscow has become the most important center of socialist culture and science (see below: Education, science, and culture). The capital of the Soviet state plays a prominent role in the struggle for peace. Here on Mar. 12, 1951, the Supreme Soviet of the USSR adopted the historic Law on the Protection of Peace. Moscow has hosted a number of important international congresses for peace, disarmament, national independence, and international cooperation, notably the World Congress of Peace-loving Forces, held in 1973. Moscow’s political and ideological influence has grown; it is the militant headquarters of the builders of communism and the center of world progress. International conferences of communist and workers’ parties were held here in 1957, 1960, and 1969. They played a decisive role in consolidating, on the basis of Marxism-Leninism, the worldwide communist movement in the struggle for peace, democracy, and socialism.

At the Twenty-fourth Congress of the CPSU, L. I. Brezhnev, general secretary of the Central Committee of the CPSU, said of Moscow: “It is dear to all Soviet people as the capital of our motherland, the most important center of industry, culture, and science, and as a symbol of our great socialist power” (Materialy XXIVs”ezda KPSS, 1971, p. 44). Speaking in the name of the party, Brezhnev set forth the task of transforming the capital into a model communist city. The appeal found a warm response among the workers of Moscow.

On May 8, 1965, for its outstanding services to the motherland and in commemoration of the 20th anniversary of victory in the Great Patriotic War, Moscow was awarded the honorary title of Hero City. It was also awarded a second Order of Lenin and the Gold Star Medal. On Nov. 4, 1967, on the eve of the 50th anniversary of Soviet power, Moscow was awarded the Order of the October Revolution.

V. E. POLETAEV

Table 4. Average annual number of workers in various branches of Industry (as a percentage of the total)
  191319401960196519701972
All industry100100100100100100
 Machine building and metal-working18474952.153.754.8
 Building materials1143.84.14.0
 Light industry44252320.117.917.1
 Food processing19766.15.75.7

In prerevolutionary Russia, Moscow’s industry consisted chiefly of light-industry and food-processing enterprises. During the building of socialism the structure of industry was radically transformed; machine building and metalworking developed rapidly and today occupy the leading place in industrial production (see Table 4). Automotive, bearing, electrical-engineering, aviation, radio engineering, and instrument-making industries were established. While retaining its importance as a manufacturer of consumer goods, Moscow became a strong production and technical base for further industrialization. Between 1913 and 1973 industrial output increased 173 times, and labor productivity grew 27 times.

Between 1940 and 1973 the total industrial output increased eight times. In all branches of industry there are leading enterprises that determine the industry’s pattern of development. In electrical engineering these enterprises include the Vladimir II’-ich Electrical Machinery Plant, the V. V. Kuibyshev Electrical Equipment Plant, the S. M. Kirov Dinamo Moscow Plant, and the Elektroprovod Cable Plant. In the machine-tool and tool industries such enterprises are the A. I. Efremov Krasnyi Proletarii Machine Tool Plant, the S. Ordzhonikidze Machine Tool Plant, and the Kalibr and Frezer tool plants. The leading instrument-making enterprises are plants producing automatic devices for heat engineering and measuring instruments for the petroleum industry, the Manometr Plant, and watch factories. The automotive industry has expanded rapidly. Enterprises include the I. A. Likhachev Truck Plant, the Lenin Komsomol Compact-Car Plant, and a plant for manufacturing motor vehicle bodies. Other machine-building enterprises includethe Kompressor Plant, which manufactures refrigeration equipment, the Borets Compressor Plant, the M. I. Kalinin Pump Plant, the Kuntsevo Platinum Products and Needle Plant, and the Perovo Commercial Machines Plant. Ferrous metallurgy is represented by the Serp i Molot Metallurgical Plant, a pipe-manufacturing plant, and the Proletarskii Trud Hardware Plant.

Light-industry enterprises include the Trekhgornaia Manufaktura Cotton Combine, the Pervaia Textile Printing Factory, the Krasnokholmskii Worsted Combine, the P. P. Shcherbakov and Krasnaia Roza silk combines, and the Vostok Burevestnik, and Zaria garment-making associations. The food-processing industry is represented by the Krasnyi Oktiabr’, the P. A. Babaev, and the Bolshevik confectionery factories; the Dukat and lava tobacco factories; a margarine plant; a meat-packing combine; and dairy combines.

Moscow’s industry plays an important role in the reequipment of the USSR’s industry. Between 1966 and 1970 alone 1, 808 new types of machines and equipment were created, including 298 pieces of electrical equipment, 245 pieces of chemical and compressor-pump equipment, and more than 170 metal-cutting machine tools. In addition, during the same period, 1, 085 new kinds of instruments and automatic devices were introduced. The reequipment of enterprises has caused the fixed capital of Moscow’s industries to increase by 38 percent between 1966 and 1970.

Capital investments by state and cooperative enterprises between 1966 and 1973 totaled 23.7 billion rubles, including 12.9 billion rubles invested in building and installation projects. (See Table 5 for the output of selected industrial products.)

Transportation. Moscow is the largest railroad nexus in the USSR, with 11 railroad lines connecting it with other parts of the country. The capital is also directly linked by rail with many foreign countries. The Great Belt Railroad, built from 50 to 120 km from the city limits, is used to haul transit freight. In 1972 the volume of incoming and outgoing freight at the Moscow railroad nexus was seven times that of 1913. There has also been a steady growth in the volume of passenger traffic.

Great progress has been made in reequiping and electrifying the railroad nexus and in improving and increasing its rolling stock. All stations of the Moscow railroad nexus have been equipped with automatic signalling and control systems and with radio communication and television (see Table 6).

With the construction of the Moscow Canal in 1937, Moscow’s importance as a river port increased. The construction of the Volga-Baltic Waterway and the Volga-Don Shipping Canal opened a waterway from Moscow to the Caspian, Azov, Black,

Table 5. Output of selected Industrial products
  19401960196519701973
1 1972
AC motors ranging in capacity from 0.25 to 100 kW
 (a) in units12000210, 000286, 000299, 000290, 000
 (b) in kW70001, 119, 0001, 649, 0001, 560, 0001, 733, 000
Crane motors (units)5, 00068, 00094, 000103, 000122, 000
Power transformers (million kW)312141215
Generators with capacities of up to 100 kW
 (a) in units15, 00022, 00025, 00028, 000
 (b) in kW64, 000109, 000104, 000114, 000
Prefabricated reinforced-concrete components and parts (cu m)3, 097, 0004, 245, 0005, 904, 0006, 630, 000
Cotton fabrics (million linear m)514509507482470
Woolen fabrics (million linear m)3179728487
Silk fabrics (million linear m)54327305314312
Leather footwear (million pairs)2933323432
Clocks and watches (million)2.355.76.48.39.9
Radios and radio-record player sets (units)4000118, 000192, 000317, 000352, 000
Television sets (units)317, 000507, 000700, 000690, 000
Household refrigerators (units)148, 000216, 000229, 000233, 000
Meat, including grade 1 meat offals (tons)92, 000157, 000153, 000177, 000196.0001
Sausages (tons)80, 000161, 000175, 000198, 000213, 000
Confectionery (tons)223, 000245, 000279, 000303, 000302, 000
Whole-milk products (converted into equivalent of milk, tons)902, 0001, 080, 0001, 392, 0001, 561, 000
Table 6. Freight and passenger turnover of the Moscow railroad nexus
 19131940196019701972
Outgoing freight (million tons)1.84.111.013.814.4
Incoming freight (million tons)7.322.941.749.052.6
Passenger traffic (million)16212379511550
Suburban transportation (million)13205368493530

White, and Baltic seas. There are three major river ports in Moscow—the western, northern, and southern. In 1972 the incoming and outgoing cargo of Moscow’s ports accounted for more than 7 percent of all the cargo handled by the Soviet Union’s river transportation system (see Table 7).

Table 7. Cargo turnover at Moscow’s river ports (millions of tons)
 1913194019701972
Outgoing cargo0.41.4510.410.6
Incoming cargo0.562.9619.218.9

Moscow is also a major trucking center, linked by 13 highways with many of the Union republics and large cities of the USSR. Freight haulage has increased from 7 million tons in 1940 to 114 million tons in 1965 and 174 million tons in 1973. An increasingly larger proportion of passenger and freight traffic is being handled by air transport. Moscow has four airports—Vnukovo, Sheremet’evo, Domodedovo, and Bykovo. Regular flights link Moscow with the capitals of the Union republics, major cities, and health resorts, and airline connections have been established with many foreign countries.

Trade and commerce. The total volume of Moscow’s retail sales increased from 2.1 billion rubles in 1940 and 6.1 billion rubles in 1960 to 12.1 billion rubles in 1973, or about 7 percent of the total sales in the country. In 1973 the population bought 68 percent more meat and meat products than in 1965, 72 percent more fish and fish products, 30 percent more butter, 45 percent more milk and dairy products, 75 percent more woolen fabrics, 86 percent more clothing and underwear, 53 percent more furniture, 76 percent more watches, and 67 percent more refrigerators. These figures attest to a rapid growth of prosperity among the city’s inhabitants.

The commercial network of the capital has expanded. Large stores and a complex of commercial enterprises have been built on Kalinin Prospect, and shopping centers have been built in Kuntsevo, Tushino, and Zelenograd (see Table 8).

Municipal economy. Housing construction has increased rapidly, and emphasis has shifted to the erection of high-rise apartment houses with improved layouts for the apartments. New large residential complexes have been built in the southwestern part of the city and in the districts of Izmailovo, Khoroshevo-Mnevniki, Fili-Mazilovo, Novye Kuz’minki, Perovo, Medvedkovo, Beskudnikovo, and Tushino. The center of the city is being renovated. Between 1961 and 1970, 4.9 million residents (70 percent of Moscow’s inhabitants) improved their housing conditions, and an average of more than 500 families obtained housing space every day. In 1971 more than half (51.2 percent) of Moscow’s housing had been built between 1961 and 1970. The housing-construction combines of Moscow and Moscow Oblast play an important role in construction (see Table 9).

During the Soviet period the communal services system has been rebuilt. The water-supply system has been enlarged, purification plants have been built, natural-gas facilities have been installed, and centralized district heating systems have been introduced. To increase the reliability of the water supply, the Mozhaisk, Ruza, and Ozernyi reservoirs have been built, and in 1974 a new source of water supply—a hydraulic engineering system on the Vazuza River—was under construction. Several gas pipelines connect Moscow with major deposits of natural gas (the Dashava-Moscow, Stavropol’-Moscow, and Middle Asia-Central Zone pipelines). A system of high-capacity heat and power plants supply the city with electric power and heat. As part of the Moscow Energy System, the city is linked by a network of high-voltage lines to the electric power plants of the Central Zone, as well as to the largest hydroelectric power plants on the Volga—the V. I. Lenin Volga Hydroelectric Power Plant and the Twenty-second Congress of the CPSU Hydrolectric Power Plant. The city’s housing has been well supplied with basic amenities. By 1973, 99 percent of the city’s socialized housing had running water, sewage disposal, gas, and central heating; 90 percent was equipped with baths.

Measures have been undertaken to improve passenger transportation. In prerevolutionary Moscow passenger transport consisted of horse-drawn streetcars, streetcars, and horse-drawn cabs (in 1913 there were 21, 000 cabs in Moscow). During the years of socialist construction, urban transport changed radically: a subway was built and trolleybus, bus, and taxi systems were established.

Table 8. Growth In the number of retail enterprises and public dining facilities
  1940196019701973
Total number of retail enterprises8, 06510, 35510, 93211, 213
 Stores3, 3494, 9215, 0175, 125
 Stalls4, 7165, 4345, 9156, 088
Total number of publicdining facilities3, 8415, 9737, 4197, 780

The number of passengers carried by all types of urban transportation increased many times: 289 million passengers in 1917, 2, 640 million in 1940, 3, 659 million in 1960, 4, 561 million in 1970, and more than 5 billion in 1973 (see Table 10). The telephone system has been modernized and expanded. By 1972, 1, 533, 000 telephones had been installed by the Ministry of Communications, as compared with 50, 000 in 1913 and 168, 000 in 1940. Automatic long-distance service has been established with all capitals of the Union republics and the major cities of the USSR, as well as with foreign countries.

Education. During the 16th century instruction in reading and writing was given in schools attached to monasteries, and several Greek-Latin schools were founded in the early 17th century. The Slavic, Greek, and Latin Academy, a higher educational institution, was established in 1687; in 1814 it was reorganized as the Moscow Theological Academy and moved to the St. Sergius Trinity Monastery. In the early 18th century a

Table 9. Housing1
(at beginning of year cited)
  19131940196119701973
1 Including privately owned housing
Total usable housing area (million sq m)16.928.259.493.8105.5
 Living space (million sq m)11.918.540.064.072.2
Number of apartments190, 000325, 000880, 0001, 781, 0002, 044, 000
Table 10. Development of urban
11972
 1940196019701973
1 1971
Subway
Length of track (calculated as a single track, in km). . . . . . . . . . . . .77208400427
Number of stations. . . . . . . . . . . . .22568996
Passengers carried (million). . . . . . . . . . . . .3771, 0381, 6281, 841
Trolleybuses
Length of operational single line (km). . . . . . . . . . . . .199540844916
Passengers carried (million). . . . . . . . . . . . .201793784870
Buses
Length of routes (km). . . . . . . . . . . . .9851, 9022, 75329911
Passengers carried (million). . . . . . . . . . . . .2209901, 5191, 7291
Streetcars
Length of operational single track (km). . . . . . . . . . . . .541485472463
Passengers carried (million). . . . . . . . . . . . .1, 842838630626

number of specialized educational institutions were founded to train engineers, civil servants, and officers. In 1701, Peter I opened the School of Mathematical and Navigational Sciences, which was housed in the Sukharev Tower; among its teachers was L. F. Magnitskii. An artillery school was also founded that year. In 1707 a medical school was established under the auspices of the military hospital, and an engineering school was opened in 1712. The first university in Russia, the present M. V. Lomonosov Moscow University, was founded in the city in 1755. Two Gymnasiums were organized under its auspices—one for noblemen’s children and the other for the children of the lower middle class. Prior to the mid-19th century Moscow University was Russia’s leading scientific and educational institution.

Few general schools were organized during the first half of the 19th century. The children of the gentry, civil servants, and merchants were given a primary education by domestic tutors. There were several parish and district primary schools, and a few children received instruction at the Foundling Hospital, opened in 1764. During the second quarter of the 19th century several factories opened primary schools; in 1848 there were 15 such schools attended by more than 1, 000 pupils. There were four Gymnasiums by the mid-19th century. A military school was established in 1824. By 1839 there were 25 private boarding schools, which charged tuition and whose curriculum was similar to that of the Gymnasiums. The Gymnasiums and boarding schools were in practice gentry educational institutions. In addition to the private boarding schools, the Catherine, Alexander, and Nicholas “institutes for wellborn girls” provided a secondary education for daughters of the gentry.

Specialized education developed during the first half of the 19th century. The Academy of Commercial Sciences and the Commercial School were opened in 1804, and the Lazarev Institute of Oriental Languages, in 1815. The Constantine Surveying School was founded in 1819 to supersede a school for surveyors founded in 1779; in 1835 it was renamed the Land Surveying Institute. A crafts school for the wards of the Moscow Foundling Hospital was opened in 1826, and S. G. Stroganov founded a drawing school in 1825.

After the adoption of the Statute on Public Primary Schools in 1864, the number of primary schools increased rapidly, and by the early 1890’s 77 such schools had been established by the Municipal Duma (prior to 1864 there were 13 state-supported primary schools). There were also several schools affiliated with government departments or owned by private persons, which together had a total enrollment of more than 13, 000 pupils. In 1893 there were 558 general schools numbering 48, 500 pupils and 56 specialized schools with 11, 100 pupils. The principal types of primary schools were the three-year municipal schools and the church-affiliated parish schools. Secondary schools included 73 Gymnasiums, 19 Realschulen, and seven women’s institutes. At the beginning of the 1914–15 school year there were 752 general schools of all types (with a total of 140, 200 pupils), 22 specialized secondary schools (6, 000 pupils), and 20 higher educational institutions (33, 900 students).

After the October Revolution of 1917 the measures adopted by the Soviet government permitted the immediate construction of a new, socialist system of public education, based on the principles of true democracy. The content of education and the entire upbringing of the new generation was completely reorganized. Children of workers and peasants were given access to higher educational institutions, and rabfaki (workers’ schools) were organized to prepare them for admission to higher schools. The first such school was opened in 1919 under the auspices of the G. V. Plekhanov Institute of the National Economy. The number of pupils enrolled in general day schools increased from 131, 000 in 1922–23 to 393, 000 in 1932–33 and 403, 000 in 1944–45.

At the beginning of 1973, the city’s 2, 418 preschools had an enrollment of 337, 500 children. In the 1973–74 school year there were 1, 223 general schools of various types, with a total enrollment of 887, 200 pupils; 156 vocational training schools, with an enrollment of 76, 100, including 65 schools providing secondary education (28, 400 students); and 138 specialized secondary schools (225, 200 students). There were also 78 higher educational institutions (622, 000 students), including the M. V. Lomonosov Moscow State University, the N. E. Bauman Higher Technical School, the Power Engineering Institute, the Mining Institute, the Institute of Aviation, the Architectural Institute, the Lenin Pedagogical Institute, three medical institutes, the Conservatory, the All-Union State Institute of Cinematography, and the State Institute of Theatrical Arts. Also located in Moscow are the Academy of Social Sciences under the Central Committee of the CPSU, the Higher Party School under the Central Committee of the CPSU, and military academies. In 1973 general schools and specialized secondary schools employed more than 55, 600 teachers, and the higher educational institutions were staffed by some 38, 000 professors and instructors.

Science and scholarship. Moscow is the most important center of learning in the USSR and one of the world’s leading scientific and scholarly centers. Prior to the October Revolution of 1917 research was conducted at higher educational institutions, primarily Moscow University, the Technical School, and the Petrovskoe Academy. A number of eminent Russian scientists and scholars have worked in Moscow, including the astronomers F. A. Bredikhin and V. K. Tseraskii; the physicists A. G. Stoletov, N. A. Umov, and P. N. Lebedev; the specialist in hydro-aerodynamics N. E. Zhukovskii, the chemist V. V. Markovnikov; the anthropologist and geographer D. N. Anuchin; the geologist A. P. Pavlov; the biologists I. M. Sechenov and K. A. Timiriazev; the physicians M. Ia. Mudrov, G. A. Zakhar’in, A. A. Ostroumov, N. V. Sklifosovskii, and N. F. Filatov; the historians T. N. Granovskii, S. M. Solov’ev, and V. O. Kliuchevskii; and the philologists F. I. Buslaev and F. F. Fortunatov. Since 1917 important contributions to Soviet and world science have been made by the specialist in hydroaerodynamics S. A. Chaplygin; the mathematician, astronomer, and arctic explorer O. Iu. Shmidt; the mathematicians N. N. Luzin and I. G. Petrovskii; the physicists L. I. Mandel’shtam, S. I. Vavilov, I. V. Kurchatov, L. D. Landau, I. E. Tamm, and L. A. Artsimovich; the chemists S. S. Nametkin and N. D. Zelinskii; the biochemist A. N. Bakh; the agrochemist D. N. Prianishnikov; the biologists N. K. Kol’tsov, A. N. Severtsov, and K. I. Skriabin; the geologists I. M. Gubkin, A. D. Arkhangel’skii, V. I. Vernadskii, and V. A. Obruchev; the geographers N. N. Baranskii and A. A. Grigor’ev; the surgeon N. N. Burdenko, the specialists in engineering V. G. Shukhov, I. P. Bardin, A. A. Skochinskii, S. P. Korolev, and A. N. Tupolev; the power engineer and economist G. M. Krzhizhanovskii; the historian M. N. Tikhomirov; the economist S. G. Strumilin; and the philologists E. E. Bertel’s, N. I. Konrad, and V. V. Vinogradov. About 80 streets are named after Russian and Soviet scientists and scholars.

As of Jan. 1, 1973, the city’s research and higher educational institutions employed some 260, 000 research workers, as compared with 48, 800 in 1950, 99, 100 in 1960, and 167, 600 in 1965. Moscow’s research workers account for 27 percent of the country’s scientific personnel and include 9, 400 doctors of sciences and 67, 600 candidates of sciences. Some 61 percent of the researchers are specialists in technology, physics, mathematics, and chemistry, and about 24 percent are engaged in social science research.

Since 1934 the Academy of Sciences of the USSR has been based in Moscow. As of 1974 the presidium of the Academy of Sciences of the USSR comprised such prominent Moscow scientists and scholars as M. V. Keldysh, president of the Academy of Sciences since 1961; the mathematicians N. N. Bogoliubov and M. A. Lavrent’ev; the physicists A. P. Aleksandrov, N. G. Basov, P. L. Kapitsa, V. A. Kotel’nikov, M. A. Markov, and A. M. Prokhorov; the specialist in power engineering M. A. Styrikovich; the specialists in mechanics B. N. Petrov and N. A. Piliugin; the chemists N. M. Zhavoronkov, A. N. Nesmeianov, and N. N. Semenov; the biochemists A. A. Baev and Iu. A. Ovchinnikov; the agrochemist la. V. Peive; the geochemist A. P. Vinogradov; the geologist V. I. Smirnov; the geophysicist L. M. Brekhovskikh; the mining specialist N. V. Mel’nikov; the historians P. N. Pospelov and B. A. Rybakov; the philosophers F. V. Konstantinov and P. N. Fedoseev; the economists A. M. Rumiantsev and N. P. Fedorenko; and the literary scholar and critic M. B. Khrapchenko.

Most of the research institutions affiliated with the Academy of Sciences of the USSR are located in Moscow, including the V. A. Steklov Institute of Mathematics, the Institute of Applied Mathematics, the P. N. Lebedev Institute of Physics, the S. I. Vavilov Institute of Physical Problems, the A. V. Shubnikov Institute of Crystallography, the Institute of Radio Engineering and Electronics, the N. S. Kurnakov Institute of General and Inorganic Chemistry, the N. D. Zelinskii Institute of Organic Chemistry, the Institute of Chemical Physics, the Institute of Hetero-Organic Compounds, the A. N. Bakh Institute of Biochemistry, the Institute of Molecular Biology, the O. Iu. Shmidt Institute of Earth Physics, the Institute of Geology, and the A. A. Baikov Institute of Metallurgy. Also affiliated with the Academy of Sciences of the USSR and located in Moscow are the Institute of Economics, the Institute of History of the USSR, the Institute of General History, the N. N. Miklukho-Maklai Institute of Ethnography, the Institute of the International Working-class Movement, the Institute of Russian Language, and the Gorky Institute of World Literature. Moscow is the leading center for scholarly work on the legacy of K. Marx, F. Engels, and V. I. Lenin and the site of the central party research institution—the Institute of Marxism-Leninism under the Central Committee of the CPSU.

In addition, Moscow has several academies devoted to particular fields of specialization. The Lenin All-Union Academy of Agricultural Sciences incorporates various research institutes, including the D. N. Prianishnikov Institute of Fertilizers and Agricultural Soil Science and the Institute of Experimental Veterinary Science. The Academy of Medical Sciences of the USSR directs the N. F. Gamalei Institute of Epidemiology and Microbiology, the A. L. Miasnikov Institute of Cardiology, the A. V. Vishnevskii Institute of Surgery, the Institute of Experimental and Clinical Oncology, and other research institutes. The Academy of Pedagogical Sciences of the USSR sponsors the Institute of General Pedagogics, the Institute of General and Educational Psychology, the Institute of the Content and Methods of Teaching, and the Institute of Defectology. Moscow is also the site of the Academy of Arts of the USSR.

The principal research institutes of the leading branches of technology and industry are located in Moscow, including the F. E. Dzerzhinskii All-Union Institute of Heat Engineering, the G. M. Krzhizhanovskii Power Engineering Institute, the Lenin All-Union Institute of Electrical Engineering, the I. V. Kurchatov Institute of Atomic Energy, the Institute of Experimental and Theoretical Physics, the N. E. Zhukovskii Central Aerohydrodynamics Institute, the All-Union Institute of Aviation Materials, the All-Union Institute of Railroad Transportation, the Central Institute of Automobiles and Automobile Engines, the I. P. Bardin Central Institute of Ferrous Metallurgy, the State All-Union Institute for the Design of Metallurgical Plants, the L. Ia. Karpov Physicochemical Institute, the All-Union Institute of Mineral Raw Materials, the Institute of Experimental Metal-cutting Machine Tools, and the Central Institute of Machine-building Technology.

The scientific-production associations Neftekhim, VNIImet-mash, and Plastik have been established in Moscow. Research is also conducted by scientific societies, scientific and engineering societies, higher educational institutions, and museums. Moscow is the site of international scientific congresses and conferences.

Culture. The center of Russian and Soviet culture, Moscow played an important role in the creation of a national literature. During the 14th and 15th centuries the first all-Russian chronicles, such as the Trinity Chronicle and the Compilation of Fotii, were compiled in Moscow. Tales about the battle of Kulikovo glorify the Muscovite prince Dmitrii Donskoi as the unifier of Russia in its struggle against the Mongol Tatars. In the 16th century several large works of group authorship were written to regulate religious, social, and home life, notably the Velikie Chet’i Minei, compiled under the supervision of Metropolitan Makarii, the Stoglav, and the Domostroi. In the 18th century the founders of modern Russian poetry—A. D. Kantemir, A. P. Sumarokov, and G. R. Derzhavin—lived in Moscow, as well as the writers D. I. Fonvizin, N. I. Novikov, and N. M. Karamzin. During the 19th century such classics of Russian literature as A. S. Pushkin, M. Iu. Lermontov, A. S. Griboedov, L. N. Tolstoy, A. N. Ostrovskii, and A. P. Chekhov lived in Moscow for long periods of time.

During the Soviet period, Moscow was the home of such masters of socialist realism as M. Gorky, V. V. Mayakovsky, A. N. Tolstoy, A. A. Fadeev, N. A. Ostrovskii, A. S. Serafimovich, I. G. Ehrenburg, and A. T. Tvardovskii. The first Soviet literary organizations—the Smithy, Young Guard, and October—were founded in Moscow. Today, the country’s largest writers’ organization, the Moscow Section of the Writers’ Union of the RSFSR, is located in Moscow. Moscow’s writers, working in prose, poetry, drama, criticism, and translation, are making an important contribution to the country’s literary development.

From the earliest days Moscow has been the center of the Russian book trade. The oldest known Muscovite handwritten book is the Siia Gospel (1339). From the 14th to the 16th century manuscripts produced in the Moscow scriptoria were illuminated by artists belonging to the schools of Theophanes the Greek, Andrei Rublev, and other icon painters. The first, “anonymous” printing press, founded around 1553, is known to have published seven books. On Mar. 1, 1564, Ivan Fedorov and Petr Mstislavets finished printing the Acts of the Apostles, the first precisely dated Russian printed book. Among the highly skilled printers at the Moscow Printing House in the 16th and early 17th centuries were Andronik Nevezha, Anisim Radishevskii, and Anikita Fofanov. In 1634, V. F. Burtsov-Protopopov published the first Moscow primer. In all more than 500 book titles were published in the 16th and 17th centuries. From the first quarter of the 18th century educational, scientific, and technical books began to appear in greater numbers. L. F. Magnitskii’s Arithmetic was issued in 1703, and Geometry, the first book printed in the Civil alphabet, was published in 1708. The first Russian printed newspaper, Vedomosti (News), began appearing regularly in January 1703. The University Press (1756), the Senate Press, and several other printing houses were founded during the second half of the 18th century. At the height of his publishing activity, N. I. Novikov was associated with the University Press.

N. M. Karamzin contributed to the development of Moscow’s literary journals in the late 18th century. The leading literary journals were Moskovskii zhurnal (Moscow Journal, 1791–92) and Aglaia (1794–95). The magazine Moskovskii telegraf (Moscow Telegraph), published between 1825 and 1834, played an important role in 19th-century Russian journalism. Large capitalist publishing enterprises, such as the I. D. Sytin Publishing House, were founded in the second half of the 19th century, followed by V. Dumnov’s publishing house Razvlechenie (Entertainment) and E. I. Konovalova’s Torgovyi Dom (Trade House) in the early 20th century.

Several illegal presses, such as the press on Lesnaia Street (1905–06), printed Marxist writings, leaflets, and proclamations. Bolshevik newspapers were published in 1904–05, and the Izvestiia Moskovskogo soveta rabochikh deputatov (News of the Moscow Soviet of Workers’ Deputies) was issued during the December 1905 armed uprising.

After the October Revolution of 1917 and the transfer of the Soviet government to Moscow in March 1918, the Kommunist Publishing House of the Central Committee of the RCP (Bolshevik) and the publishing house of the All-Russian Central Executive Committee were founded. The editorial offices of the newspaper Pravda were moved to Moscow. The newspaper Izvestiia VTsIK (News of the VTsIK) was founded in 1918; in 1938 it was renamed Izvestiia Sovetov deputatov trudiashchikhsia SSSR (News of the Soviets of Working People’s Deputies of the USSR). The Gosizdat (State Publishing House) of the RSFSR was established in 1919 and soon became the country’s largest publishing organization.

The central publishing houses of the USSR and republic-level publishing houses of the RSFSR are located in Moscow, as are the editorial offices of the all-Union newspapers and the republic-level newspapers of the RSFSR. Most scientific, technical, and cultural magazines are published in the city. Other publishing enterprises include the Moskovskii Rabochii Publishing House, the publishing house of the newspaper Moskovskaia pravda (Moscow Pravda), and the many publishing departments attached to scientific research institutes, higher educational institutions, and other organizations.

In addition to the central newspapers, various local newspapers are available to Moscow’s inhabitants, including the city newspapers Moskovskaia pravda (Moscow Pravda) and Vecherniaia Moskva (Evening Moscow), the city and oblast newspaper Moskovskii komsomolets (Moscow Komsomol Member), and the weeklies Moskovskaia sportivnaia nedelia (Moscow Sports Weekly), Moskovskaia reklama (Moscow Advertising), Shakhmatnaia Moskva (Chess Moscow), and Moskovskaia kinonedelia (Moscow Cinema Weekly). The Moscow writers’ organization, in collaboration with the Writers’ Union of the RSFSR, issues the journal Moskva. The Executive Committee of the Moscow Council publishes the journals Gorodskoe khoziaistvo Moskvy (Moscow Municipal Economy) and Stroitel’stvo i arkhitektura Moskvy (Moscow Construction and Architecture). Also in Moscow are TASS (Telegraph Agency of the Soviet Union) and the Novosti Press Agency.

The first Soviet printing combine—the printing plant of Izvestiia—was built in 1926, and the largest printing enterprise, the combine of the newspaper Pravda, was opened on May 5, 1934. Other large printing plants include the Pervaia Obraztsovaia, the Krasnyi Proletarii, the Moscow Press No. 2, and Fabrika Detskoi Knigi. Among the city’s 184 bookstores are Dom Knigi, Moskva, and Druzhba.

As of Jan. 1, 1973, the city had 1, 379 public libraries, housing 39.4 million volumes of books and magazines; more than 2, 000 technical libraries with some 250 million holdings; the Lenin State Library of the USSR, one of the largest libraries in the world; a library of foreign literature; historical and polytechnic libraries; and public scientific and technical libraries. Among the city’s 61 museums are the Central Museum of the Revolution of the USSR, the Central Lenin Museum, the Marx-Engels Museum, the Historical Museum, the Polytechnic Museum, the Tret’iakov Gallery, the Pushkin Museum of Fine Arts, the Museum of the History and Reconstruction of Moscow, the Armory, the Museum of Art of the Oriental Peoples, the Museum of People’s Art, the A. V. Shchusev Architectural Museum, the Andrei Rublev Museum of Ancient Russian Art, and the Museum of the Battle of Borodino.

There are 37 palaces and houses of Young Pioneers, including the Municipal Palace of Young Pioneers and Schoolchildren; six young technicians’ stations; two children’s excursion and tourist stations; a city club for young motorists; a club for young sailors, riverboat workers, and polar explorers; and 14 children’s parks.

From earliest times Moscow played an important role in the development of Russian pictorial art. During the 15th century Andrei Rublev and Dionisii worked here, and in the 17th century the Armory, where many painters worked, became a unique art school. The embroidered shrouds, silver bratiny (globe-shaped vessels for beverages), goblets, tiles, and wood carvings that were made in Moscow were considered the best in Russia, becoming models for other workshops. During the 18th century the painters I. N. Nikitin, I. P. Argunov, and F. S. Rokotov worked in Moscow. The School of Painting and Sculpture, founded in the 1830’s and 1840’s, played a major role in the developnent of democratic realistic art in Russia. Among the noteworthy artists associated with the school were V. G. Perov, V. E. Makovskii, I. M. Prianishnikov, K. A. Savitskii, and A. K. Savrasov.

During the last quarter of the 19th century and the beginning of the 20th, the famous painters V. I. Surikov, V. A. Serov, V. M. Vasnetsov, A. M. Vasnetsov, S. A. Korovin, K. A. Korovin, V. D. Polenov, and M. A. Vrubel’ worked in Moscow. Such well-known Soviet painters as A. E. Arkhipov, A. M. Gerasimov, S. V. Gerasimov, I. E. Grabar’, A. A. Deineka, B. V. Ioganson, N. A. Kasatkin, P. P. Konchalovskii, P. D. Korin, P. V. Kuznetsov, M. V. Nesterov, and K. F. Iuon have worked in Mocow. The city has also been the home of the sculptors N. A. Andreev, E. F. Belashova, E. V. Vuchetich, S. T. Konenkov, S. D. Lebedeva, M. G. Manizer, S. D. Merkurov, V. I. Mukhina, and I. D. Shadr and the graphic artists V. A. Favorskii, A. I. Kravchenko, and B. I. Prorokov.

The city’s theatrical life dates from the 17th century, when skomorokhi (itinerant performers) were invited to perform at the “amusement hall” (poteshnaia palatd) at the tsar’s court. The first court theater, Pastor J. Gregori’s company, was founded in 1672. Its productions were held first in the Kremlin and later in the village of Preobrazhenskoe near Moscow in the specially built Comedy House. The first public theater, headed by I. Kh. Kunst, opened in 1702 at the Comedy House on Red Square. The University Theater, established in 1757 at Moscow University, became the basis for the Russian professional theater in Moscow. In 1780, M. Medoks built a municipal public theater —the Petrovskii Theater—at the corner of Petrovka Street and Petrovskaia Square, later renamed Theater Square. The theater staged operas and plays. Imperial theaters, supported by the state, were established in 1806. Among the first famous actors were P. A. Plavil’shchikov, S. N. Sandunov, and E. S. Sandunov. After the Malyi Theater opened in the home of the merchant Vargin on Oct. 14 (26), 1824, the dramatic actors from the Petrovskii Theater moved there. On Jan. 6 (18), 1825, the Bolshoi Theater for operatic and ballet performances opened in a building constructed in 1824 on the site of the Petrovskii Theater, which had burned down. The Conservatory was founded in 1866. Soon after the abolition of the imperial theaters’ monopoly on theatrical productions in 1882, several private theaters were opened, such as the F. A. Korsh Theater and the S. I. Mamontov Moscow Private Russian Opera.

The greatest actors of the 19th and early 20th centuries were P. S. Mochalov, M. S. Shchepkin, the Sadovskiis, M. N. Ermolova, A. I. Iuzhin, and A. P. Lenskii. The leading singers were F. I. Chaliapin, L. V. Sobinov, and A. V. Nezhdanova, and the most famous ballet dancers were E. A. Sankovskaia, L. A. Roslavleva, and E. V. Gel’tser. The eminent composers S. V. Rachmaninoff, S. I. Taneev, and A. N. Scriabin worked in Moscow. In 1898, K. S. Stanislavsky and V. I. Nemirovich-Danchenko founded the Moscow Art Theater, which opened on October 14 (26). A. Ia. Tairov established the Kamernyi Theater in 1914.

During the Soviet period many new theaters were opened: the First Theater of the RSFSR, founded in 1920 and called the Meyerhold Theater between 1926 and 1938; the Theater of the Revolution (1922), later renamed the Mayakovsky Theater; the Moscow City Soviet of Trade Unions Theater (1923), which later became the Moscow Mossovet Theater; the Theater of the Moscow Art Theater’s Third Studio (1921), later renamed Vakhtangov Theater; theaters for children; and theaters for working youth.

Among prominent Soviet composers who have worked in Moscow are D. D. Shostakovich, S. S. Prokofiev, N. Ia. Miaskovskii, R. M. Glière, Iu. A. Shaporin, D. B. Kabalevskii, A. I. Khachaturian, T. N. Khrennikov, G. V. Sviridov, and R. K. Shchedrin. Leading performing artists have included the pianists G. G. Neigauz, K. N. Igumnov, E. G. Gilel’s, and S. T. Rikhter; the violinists D. F. Oistrakh and L. B. Kogan; the singers I. S. Kozlovskii, S. Ia. Lemeshev, M. D. Mikhailov, M. O. Reizen, A. S. Pirogov, N. A. Obukhova, V. V. Barsova, and I. K. Arkhipova. The conductors N. S. Golovanov, K. K. Ivanov, and E. F. Svetlanov have worked in Moscow, as well as the director B. A. Pokrovskii. Famous ballet dancers and choreographers have included G. S. Ulanova, O. V. Lepeshinskaia, M. T. Semenova, M. M. Plisetskaia, K. Ia. Goleizovskii, R. V. Zakharov, L. M. Lavrovskii, and Iu. N. Grigorovich.

Among outstanding directors and actors who have contributed to the city’s cultural life are E. O. Liubimov-Lanskoi, A. D. Popov, R. N. Simonov, Iu. A. Zavadskii, N. P. Okhlopkov, V. I. Kachalov, I. M. Moskvin, O. L. Knipper-Chekhova, L. M. Leonidov, N. P. Khmelev, A. K. Tarasova, B. N. Livanov, A. N. Gribov, M. M. Ianshin, A. A. Iablochkina, V. N. Ryzhova, E. D. Turchaninova, A. A. Ostuzhev, V. N. Pashennaia, M. I. Tsarev, M. I. Zharov, I. V. Il’inskii, B. I. Babochkin, B. V. Shchukin, I. N. Bersenev, A. G. Koonen, S. M. Mikhoels, V. P. Maretskaia, N. D. Mordvinov, R. Ia. Pliatt, M. I. Babanova, Iu. K. Borisova, M. A. Ul’ianov, and O. N. Efremov. Famous motion-picture directors have included S. M. Eisenstein, V. I. Pudovkin, A. P. Dovzhenko, D. Vertov, G. V. Aleksandrov, I. A. Pyr’ev, M. I. Romm, Iu. Ia. Raizman, G. L. Roshal’, S. A. Gerasimov, and S. I. Iutkevich.

In 1974, Moscow’s theaters included the Bolshoi Academic Theater, the Malyi Academic Theater, the Gorky Moscow Art Academic Theater, the Vakhtangov Academic Theater, the Mossovet Academic Theater, the Mayakovsky Academic Theater, the Central Theater of the Soviet Army, the Theater of Satire, the Lenin Komsomol Theater, the Ermolova Theater, the Pushkin Theater, the Stanislavsky Dramatic Theater, the Gogol Theater, the Sovremennik Theater, the Theater of Drama and Comedy on the Taganka, the Dramatic Theater on Malaia Bronnaia, the Central Children’s Theater, the Children’s Music Theater, the Young People’s Theater, the K. S. Stanislavsky and V. I. Nemirovich-Danchenko Music Theater, the Moscow Theater of Operetta, the Romen Theater, the Central Puppet Theater under the direction of S. V. Obraztsov, the Puppet Theater, the Estrada Theater, and the Film Actor’s Studio. The city has two circuses. Other cultural facilities include the Kremlin Palace of Congresses, the Large and Small Halls of the Conservatory, the P. I. Tchaikovsky Concert Hall, and the Central Concert Hall. As of Jan. 1, 1973, the city had 321 clubs.

A number of motion-picture studios are based in Moscow: Mosfil’m, the M. Gorky Central Motion-Picture Studio of Children’s and Young People’s Films, studios producing documentaries and popular-science films, and Soiuzmul’tfil’m (cartoons). The city has 606 units for showing motion pictures, including 531 stationary ones. The P. I. Tchaikovsky international competition for pianists and violinists has been held in the city since 1958, and international ballet competitions have been held here since 1969. The city has sponsored international film festivals since 1959.

Radio broadcasting from Moscow began on Nov. 7, 1922, when the Comintern Central Radiotelephony Station went into operation. Regular broadcasting was instituted in 1924, and today all the city’s inhabitants have radios. In 1973, Muscovites were able to listen to four programs of the Central Union Radio, including the city’s broadcasts Moscow and Muscovites, Working People’s Moscow, and Letters From Muscovites, totaling 2 hours and 24 minutes daily.

The city’s first television center was built in 1938 on Shabolovka Street, and television broadcasting began on Mar. 10, 1939 (it was interrupted from 1941 to 1945). Regular color television broadcasts were introduced Oct. 1, 1967. After the construction of the 50th Anniversary of the October Revolution All-Union Television Center at Ostankino in 1969, television broadcasting expanded considerably. In 1973, Central Television offered four programs, of which the second (six hours daily) and fourth (3.6 hours) are intended for the inhabitants of Moscow and surrounding areas. Broadcasts of local interest include Moscow, Moscow News, and Moscow at Work.

Russia’s first large medical institutions were founded in Moscow. In 1707, during the reign of Peter I, a general hospital with a medical school was opened to serve the army and navy. Today the hospital is called the N. N. Burdenko Central Military Hospital. In 1764 a faculty of medicine was organized at Moscow University. The first large hospital for civilians, the Pavel Hospital (now the Fourth Municipal Hospital), was established in 1763. Subsequently, the large Catherine Hospital (present Moscow Oblast Clinical Research Institute) was founded in 1776, and the Golitsyn Hospital (present First Municipal Hospital) was established in 1798. The Moscow Section of the Academy of Medicine and Surgery was founded in 1798. The Almshouse, also called the Sheremetev Hospital, was built between 1794 and 1807; today it is the N. V. Sklifosovskii First Aid Research Institute.

In 1913 there were 60 hospitals with 11, 100 beds (6.5 beds per 1, 000 inhabitants) and 29 outpatient clinics at factories and plants. Most of the physicians were in private practice, and pharmacies were privately owned. First aid, given at four police stations, was maintained by private donations. The city had about 2, 300 physicians (one per 714 inhabitants) and 900 medical assistants. Social diseases, such as venereal diseases, tuberculosis, and alcoholism, were combated by philanthropic organizations. Child and maternity care was very limited: in 1913 there were only 14 municipal maternity homes (700 beds) with a few consultation clinics, six municipal nursery-orphanages with 615 beds, and 50 nursery-orphanages run by charitable organizations with 1, 700 beds. The sanitary inspection service employed 45 physicians, and there was one hygiene laboratory.

With the establishment of Soviet power in 1917, public health care in Moscow was quickly transformed. Beginning in 1918 the administration of medical and sanitary institutions was centralized and placed under the jurisdiction of the public health section of the Moscow City Council. In 1921 public health sections were established in the raion councils, and a municipal first-aid station was created in 1922. The fight against tuberculosis, dermatovenereal diseases, and alcoholism was waged through a system of raion dispensaries. At all the large industrial enterprises outpatient facilities developed into large medical-preventive institutions.

By Jan. 1, 1973, there were 260 hospitals with 99, 400 beds (13.4 beds per 1, 000 inhabitants), as compared with 190 hospitals with 36, 600 beds in 1940 (8.4 beds per 1, 000 inhabitants). Outpatient care was given by 988 medical institutions with specialized sections. The city had some 59, 000 physicians (one per 126 inhabitants), as compared with 18, 200 in 1940 (one per 240 inhabitants). There were also more than 110, 000 medical assistants, as compared with 29, 400 in 1940. In 1973 the city had 479 permanent nurseries with 47, 000 beds and 370 pharmacies. The number of first-aid substations grew from seven in 1940 to 24 in 1972. By Jan. 1, 1973, Moscow had 39 sanatoriums and houses of rest, both seasonal and year-round, with 4, 600 beds. The city has more than 70 medical research institutes and laboratories, three higher medical institutions, and 27 medical schools.

V. IA. IL’IN

Physical culture and sports. Moscow is one of the world’s major sports centers. In 1973 there were about 4, 000 physical culture groups (forming ten trade union and departmental sports societies), and 1.5 million persons were involved in physical culture. The country’s first school sports society, Iunost’ (Youth), was created in 1958, and by 1973 some 250, 000 schoolchildren belonged to 970 physical culture groups. In 1973 the city had 143 sports schools for children and young people with an enrollment of 55, 000. Moscow has trained 12, 500 Masters of Sports and more than 600 international Masters of Sports, and about 1, 000 Muscovites have won the title Honored Master of Sports. More than 3, 000 athletes from Moscow have been champions of the USSR, 614 have been world and Olympic champions, and 415 have been European champions. Moscow is represented in USSR championship games for the A League by 28 teams. Some of these teams have been USSR champions many times and have won important international competitions in basketball (the Central Army Sports Club), volleyball (the Central Army Sports Club, Dinamo, and Lokomotiv), water polo (the Central Water-Sports Club of the Navy, Moscow University Sports Club, and Dinamo), soccer (Spartak, Dinamo, and the Central Army Sports Club), and ice hockey (the Central Army Sports Club, Spartak, and Dinamo).

Moscow has more than 5, 000 sports facilities, including 59 stadiums. The largest stadiums are the Lenin Central Stadium with more than 100, 000 seats, the Dinamo Stadium with 56, 000 seats, and the Lokomotiv Stadium, which has a seating capacity of 40, 000. Among other facilities are six sports palaces, 30 swimming pools, 1, 300 halls for games and gymnastics, 240 soccer fields, the modern sports complexes of the Central Army Sports Club, the State Central Institute of Physical Culture in Izmailovo, a rowing channel in the Tatarovo bottomlands (with two courses 2, 300 m long; the principal course is 125 m wide and the return course 74 m wide; the stands have a seating capacity of 10, 000), the Khimki Rowing Base, the Serebrianyi Bor Water-Sports Base, the Dinamo Water-Sports Stadium, the bicycle track in the Young Pioneers’ Stadium, the track and field arena in Sokol’niki, the Kurkino Road for bicycle races, and the Dinamo Shooting Range. Moscow has the facilities for organizing the world’s largest competitions, such as the Spartakiad of the peoples of the USSR, held in Moscow every four years since 1956; world championships; European championships; and the Olympics. Between 1946 and 1973, Moscow hosted world, European, and other international championships in most of the Olympic sports; in 1973 the World Universiada (Universities’ Games) was held here.

Moscow’s oldest section is the Kremlin, which, with its magnificent cathedrals, vertical fortress towers, and the Bell Tower of Ivan the Great, is the historical, political, and cultural nucleus of the capital. Alongside the Kremlin is the city’s central square, Red Square (name originated in the 15th century), on which stands the multipillared St. Basil’s Cathedral. Moscow’s radial-ring plan derives from two elements: the radial streets have been constructed on the sites of roads that extended in various directions from the Kremlin; the principal ring thoroughfares arose on the sites of the city’s fortifications. The fortifications, which were constructed at various stages in the city’s development, include the fortress walls of Kitai-gorod (1535–38), Belyi Gorod (1585–93, now the Bul’varnoe Ring), and Zemlianoi Gorod (1591, 1641, and 1659; now the Sadovoe Ring).

From the 14th through 16th centuries fortified monasteries were built on the main approaches to Moscow. Among these were the Andronik Monastery, Simonov Monastery (founded in 1379; still preserved are its southern wall and towers, 1640’s, and its refectory, 1677–80, architects O. D. Startsev and others), Novospasskii Monastery (founded in 1462), Don Monastery, and Novodevichii Monastery. In the 15th and 16th centuries there was an increase in the number of masonry residential buildings, as well as of stone churches in the posady (merchants’ and artisans’ quarters). Noteworthy examples of church architecture of this period are the columnless, cruciform, vaulted churches of the Conception of St. Anne in the Corner (1478–93), St. Nikita Beyond the Iauza River [1595], and St. Trifon in Naprudnoe (late 15th and early 16th centuries)

The 16th century witnessed the construction of pillarlike, tent-shaped churches (for example, Voznesenie Church in Kolomenskoe, 1532) and the erection of monumental, five-domed churches (for example, the Church of the Beheading of St. John the Precursor in D’iakovskoe, 1547).

During the 17th century substantial changes occurred in Moscow’s appearance. The Kremlin’s role as a fortress diminished; its towers, embellished with elegant, tent-shaped spires, assumed a decorative nature. A large number of stone churches and public buildings sprang up, with complex outlines, splendid carved details in white stone, ornamental brickwork, and colored tiles (for example, Troitsa Church in Nikitniki, 1628–53; Church of the Nativity of the Virgin in Putinki, 1649–52; and Church of St. Nicholas in Khamovniki, 1679–80). In the late 17th century, the Naryshkin style of architecture was introduced (for example, Znamenie Church in the Sheremetev Yard, 1704; Voskresenie Church in Kadashi, 1687–1713; Pokrov Church in Fili, 1690–93; Troitsa Church in Troetskoe-Lykovo, 1698–1704; and Rizpolozhenie Church on Donskaia Street, 1701). Stone residences, such as the palace of the Duma official Averkii Kirillov on the Bersenevskaia Esplanade (1657), the palace of the Volkovs on Bol’shoi Khariton’evskii Lane (late 17th century), and the palace of the Troekurovs on Georgievskii Lane (1696), stood out sharply amid the wooden structures that surrounded them.

In the late 17th and the early 18th century, the first attempts were made at regular city planning. A special ukase of 1704 established the Kamer-Kollezhskii Rampart as Moscow’s new city limit; it also required that only stone buildings be constructed in the center of Moscow and that they be erected within a prescribed zone. Most buildings, however, continued to be made of wood. In order to regulate further construction, the architects I. F. Michurin and I. A. Mordvinov drew up the first plan for Moscow (1731–39). Structures were built that repeated traditional 17th-century architectural forms but also used the classical orders. A baroque style developed, as seen in the Church of the Archangel Gabriel (often referred to as the Menshikov Tower; begun 1701; 1704–07; architect I. P. Zarudnyi), the Church of St. John the Warrior (1709–13, attributed to Zarudnyi), and the Apraksin house (1766).

During the second half of the 18th century, there was a great deal of large-scale and diverse construction in the Russian classical style in Moscow. Large public buildings were erected, and a type of urban estate for the gentry reached a high state of development (for example, the Pashkov house [now one of the buildings of the Lenin State Library of the USSR, 1784–86, architect V. I. Bazhenov]). The architect M. F. Kazakov designed a number of classical buildings, including the Noblemen’s Assembly building (now the House of Trade Unions), the Golitsyn Hospital (now the main building of the First Municipal Hospital, 1796–1801), the Demidov house (now the Institute for Geodesy, Aerial Photography, and Cartography, 1779–91), the Baryshnikov house (now the Institute of Health Education, 1797–1802), the Church of the Metropolitan Philip (1777–88), and the Church of Saints Cosmas and Damian. Other classical buildings of this period include the Foundling Hospital (1764–70, architect K. I. Blank, in collaboration with Kazakov) and the Almshouse (now the N. V. Sklifosovskii First-Aid Research Institute, 1794–1807; architects E. S. Nazarov, G. Quarenghi, and others).

In the late 18th century, boulevards were laid around the ring of the Belyi Gorod, with squares where they intersected the radial streets (architect S. A. Karin; the first was Tverskoi Boulevard, 1796). In the late 18th and early 19th centuries, a number of estates sprang up outside Moscow, for example, in Kuskovo, Ostankino, and Tsaritsyno (these areas are now within the Moscow city limits). At the same time, residences for craftsmen and Moscow factory workers were built haphazardly in the outskirts of Moscow, in the vicinity of former slobody (tax-exempt settlements). Small wooden houses, shops, and workshops were scattered throughout the city.

After the fire of 1812, which destroyed more than two-thirds of Moscow’s buildings, a commission for the construction of Moscow was created to restore the city. One of the directors of the commission, which existed from 1813 to 1843, was the architect O. I. Bove. Under the commission’s supervision, large-scale urban construction projects were carried out. Ensembles were designed for Moscow’s central squares—Red Square and Teatral’naia Square (now Sverdlov Square). The Alexander Garden was laid out near the Kremlin, on the site of the then canalized and underground Neglinnaia River. Monumental public buildings were constructed, including the Bolshoi Theater, the Riding School, Moscow University (the old building, 1786–93, architect M. F. Kazakov; rebuilt in 1817–19, architect D. I. Zhiliardi), Catherine Institute (now the House of the Soviet Army), the Triumphal Arch, and the Widows Home (now the Institute for the Advanced Training of Doctors, 1809–11, architect I. D. Zhiliardi; rebuilt 1818, architect D. I. Zhiliardi), the Kuz’minki estate (1820’s, architect D. I. Zhiliardi), the Usachev-Naidenov estate on Chkalov Street (1829–31, architect D. I. Zhiliardi), and the Food Warehouses (1821–35, architects V. P. Stasov and F. M. Shestakov). During this period standardized plans for apartment houses and standardized components played an important role.

During the second half of the 19th century and the beginning of the 20th, new types of buildings appeared (income-producing [speculative] houses, commercial structures, banks, and railroad stations). There was a sharp contrast between the bourgeois quarters, with their commercial centers, and the workers’ districts, which lacked even the most basic conveniences. Every attempt to replan the city rationally, to increase public landscaping, or to straighten out curving lanes, was treated as a violation of private property. Despite progress in building technology, the architecture of this period declined in quality.

During the late 19th century, eclecticism prevailed in masonry construction. The Nikolaevskaia (now the Leningradskaia Railroad Station (1849, architect K. A. Ton) was built in the Russo-Byzantine style. The Historical Museum, the Municipal Duma Building (now the Lenin Central Museum), the Kazan Railroad Station (1914–26, 1941, architect A. V. Shchusev), and the main facade of the Tret’iakov Gallery (early 1900’s, based on drawings by V. M. Vasnetsov) are marked by motifs of 17th-century “patterned” or Naryshkin architecture. The Museum of Fine Arts was built in the neoclassical style. The art nouveau style was used by the architect F. O. Shekhtel’ in the construction of the Art Theater (1902), the Riabushinskii private home on Kachalov Street (1900), and the Yaroslavl Railroad Station (1902).

A fundamental reorganization of Moscow, based on new principles of urban planning, was begun after the October Revolution of 1917. Between 1918 and 1925 a plan for the “New Moscow” was worked out by a group of architects headed by A. V. Shchusev. The plan called for the socialist transformation of the city and anticipated some of the principal concepts of the 1935 general plan. In order to improve the living conditions of the working class and to eliminate slums in the city’s outskirts, complexes of apartment houses with standardized sections were erected during the 1920’s along Usachev Street (1924–30, architect A. I. Meshkov, engineer G. A. Maslennikov), Dubrovskie Street (1926–27, architects M. I. Motylev, D. N. Molokov, A. V. Iuganov), and the Dangauerovka area (1929–35, architects M. I. Motylev, B. N. Blokhin, A. M. Vagner). The apartment complexes represented in principle a new type of working-class housing. Spacious landscaped yards, good ventilation, rationally designed apartments, and the presence of balconies and communal amenities (including utilities) all indicate a turning point in mass housing construction.

The public buildings of this period are characterized by a freedom of composition using simple geometric volumes, rational structural solutions, and the expressive juxtaposition of vitrified and blank surfaces. Examples are the radio tower (1921, engineer V. G. Shukhov), the building housing the newspaper Izvestiia (1925–27, architect G. B. Barkhin), the Pravda newspaper complex (1929–35, architect P. A. Golosov), the Ministry of Agriculture of the USSR (1928–33, architect A. V. Shchusev), the Central Board of Statistics of the USSR (1928–35, architect Le Corbusier, in collaboration with the architect N. D. Kolli), the new buildings of the Lenin Library, the Planetarium (1928, architects M. O. Barshch and M. I. Siniavskii), the I. V. Rusakov Club (1927–29, architect K. S. Mel’nikov), and the Palace of Culture of the I. A. Likhachev Truck Plant (1930–34, architects the Vesnin Brothers). Between 1924 and 1930 the Lenin Mausoleum—an outstanding example of Soviet architecture—was built on Red Square (architect A. V. Shchusev).

On July 10, 1935, the Central Committee of the ACP(B) and the Council of People’s Commissars of the USSR adopted the decree On the General Plan for the Reconstruction of Moscow. The plan, which had been worked out by the architects V. N. Semenov, S. E. Chernyshev, and others, preserved the historically formed radial-ring layout of the city and provided for the addition of new districts and for the creation of new ring and radial main thoroughfares. On the basis of the plan, large-scale urban construction projects were undertaken. Old Moscow with its chaotic construction along narrow streets and lanes was transformed into a city of spacious squares and main thorough-fares, which were integrated with well-designed esplanades and parks.

During the reconstruction of the center of Moscow, Manezhnaia Square was created (now the 50-letiia Oktiabria Square). The Hotel Moskva (1932–38, architects A. V. Shchusev, O. A. Stapran, and L. I. Savel’ev) and the building of the State Planning Committee of the USSR (1932–36, architect A. Ia. Langman) were constructed on the site formerly occupied by the small shops of Okhotnyi riad (Hunters’ Row). It was at this time that the major thoroughfares were reconstructed: Gorky Street (1937–39, architect A. G. Mordvinov, engineer P. A. Krasil’nikov), Bol’shaia Kaluzhskaia Street (now part of Lenin Prospect, 1939–40, architects A. G. Mordvinov, D. N. Chechulin, G. P. Gol’ts, and others), and Mozhaiskoe Road (now part of Kutuzov Prospect, 1938–40, architects Z. M. Rozenfel’d and others). Many multistory apartment houses, including some made with large prefabricated panels, were built along Valovaia Street, Bol’shaia Polianka Street, and Leningrad Prospect (1938–41, architects A. K. Burov and B. N. Blokhin). Numerous schools, clubs, motion-picture theaters, and administrative and government institutions were built in all of Moscow’s districts. One of the new buildings was the M. V. Frunze Academy (1937, architects L. V. Rudnev and V. O. Munts).

As part of the reconstruction of Moscow, problems of transportation and diversion of water to the Moskva River were resolved. Between 1935 and 1939 the first sections of the subway were put into operation; the Kropotkinskaia station (1933–35, architects A. N. Dushkin and others), the Lermontovskaia station (1935, architects I. A. Fomin and others), and the Mayakovskaia station (1938–39, architect A. N. Dushkin) are quite beautiful in design. The construction of the Moscow Canal (1932–37, architects A. M. Rukhliadev and V. F. Krinskii; engineers V. M. Perlin and others) facilitated the supply of water to the capital and the development of shipping on the Moskva River. Between 1936 and 1939 the bridges were completely rebuilt, including the Moskvoretskii (architect A. V. Shchusev, engineer V. S. Kirillov) and the Krymskii (architect A. V. Vlasov, engineer B. P. Konstantinov). In 1939 the All-Union Agricultural Exhibition was set up (rebuilt in 1954, now the Exhibition of the Achievements of the National Economy of the USSR).

Landscaping projects were carried out, and a number of parks were established or redesigned, including the Gorky Central Park of Culture and Recreation (1935–41, principal architect A. V. Vlasov), Izmailovo Park (1931, architects M. P. Korzhev and M. I. Prokhorova), and Sokol’niki Park (in existence since 1878, redesigned in 1931). In addition, a number of small, well-designed public gardens were created, such as the Alexander Garden.

After 1945, the development of Moscow was renewed on a broader scale. Work on the subway continued, residential districts were developed in Izmailovo, in the Oktiabr’skoe Pole, and on Peschanye Street, and a residential district was built in the southwestern part of the city. Boulevards were redesigned, and large parks and gardens were planned for the southwestern district. In 1949 and 1950, a small public garden was created at Pushkin Square (architects A. M. Zaslavskii and M. A. Minkus). The rational development of Moscow and the creation of new architectural complexes were spurred on by a ten-year plan for Moscow (1951–60), carried out under the direction of architect D. N. Chechulin, and by the establishment in 1950 of an institute for highway architects (Mosproekt). In planning main thoroughfares as integrated complexes the architects have striven to combine a high level of technology and basic conveniences with the requirements of urban construction.

The following high-rise buildings emphasize the radial-ring plan and the historical skyline of Moscow: Moscow University on the Lenin Hills (1949–53, architects L. V. Rudnev, S. E. Chernyshev, P. V. Abrosimov, and A. F. Khriakov; engineer V. N. Nasonov), the Ministry of Foreign Affairs on Smolensk Square (1948–52, architects V. G. Gel’freikh and M. A. Minkus, engineer G. M. Limanovskii), the apartment houses on Vosstanie Square (1950–54, architects M. V. Posokhin and A. A. Mndoiants, engineer I. V. Vokhomskii) and on Kotel’nicheskaia Esplanade (1948–52; architects D. N. Chechulin and A. K. Rostkovskii; engineer L. M. Gokhman), the administrative and residential building on Lermontov Square (1953, architects A. N. Dushkin and B. S. Mezentsev, engineer V. M. Abramov), and the Hotel Ukraina (1957, architects A. G. Mordvinov and others, engineer P. A. Krasil’nikov).

Since 1955, construction has shifted to vacant land, and there has been a rapid increase in the housing stock. Major urban districts have been created, divided into neighborhood units, and laid out according to standardized plans. The districts include one in the southwestern part of the city (architects B. S. Mezentsev, E. N. Stamo, and others), Novye Cheremushki (including block nos. 9 and 10, architects N. A. Osterman and others), Khimki-Khovrino (architects K. S. Alabian, N. N. Selivanov, and others), Chertanovo (architects V. L. Voskresenskii and others), Troparevo and Matveevskoe (both designed by architects E. N. Stamo and others), Davydkovo (architects V. G. Gel’-freikh, A. V. Afanas’ev, and others), and Kon’kovo-Derevlevo, Beliaevo-Bogorodskoe, and Teplyi Stan (all three designed by architect Ia. B. Belopol’skii and others). Komsomol’skii Prospect (1958–65, architects A. G. Mordvinov, E. G. Vulykh, and others) and Kalinin Prospect (1964–69, architects M. V. Posokhin, A. A. Mndoiants, and others) were built in the central city. Apartment houses were constructed with new building materials, such as vibration-formed slabs (for example, the 25-story house on Mir Prospect, 1969, architect V. S. Andreev, engineer I. V. Bellavin and others). In 1955 and 1956 the huge Lenin Central Stadium Complex was built in Luzhniki (architects A. V. Vlasov, I. E. Rozhin, A. F. Khriakov, and N. N. Ullas; engineers V. N. Nasonov and others).

Since the 1960’s a number of large-scale public buildings have been constructed that are characterized by simple forms, a functional volumetric design, and an organic use of monumental paintings and sculpture. Such buildings include the Kremlin Palace of Congresses, the palace of young pioneers and schoolchildren named in honor of the 40th anniversary of the young pioneer organization (1959–63, architects I. A. Pokrovskii, V. S. Egerev, V. S. Kubasov, and others), the motion-picture theaters Rossiia (1961, architects Iu. N. Sheverdiaev and others) and Oktiabr’ (1967, architects M. V. Posokhin, A. A. Mndoiants, and V. A. Svirskii; mosaics by the artists A. V. Vasnetsov and others), the city airport terminal (1965, architects D. I. Burdin and others), the television center at Ostankino (1968, architects L. I. Batalov and V. V. Zharov; the 533-meter-high tower, 1967, engineer N. V. Nikitin and B. A. Zlobin, architects D. I. Burdin and others), and the School of Choreography (1967, architects V. V. Lebedev and A. D. Larin). Other buildings following these design principles include the building of the Council for Mutual Economic Assistance (1969, architects M. V. Posokhin, A. A. Mndoiants, and V. A. Svirskii, engineers Iu. V. Ratskevich and others), the computer center of the Gosplan USSR (1970, architect L. N. Pavlov and others), the Hotel Rossiia (1970, architects D. N. Chechulin, P. P. Shteller, and others), the circus (1971, architects Ia. B. Belopol’skii and E. P. Vulykh, engineer A. F. Sudakov), the clinical and laboratory building of the A. V. Vishnevskii Institute of Surgery (1971, architects V. L. Voskresenskii and others), the Kursk Railroad Station (1972, principal architect G. I. Voloshinov), and the new building of the Art Theater (1972, architects V. S. Kubasov and others).

In 1971 the General Plan for the Development of Moscow was approved (architects M. V. Posokhin, N. N. Ullas, and others); its execution was expected to take 25 to 30 years (beginning in 1961). In the words of L. I. Brezhnev, “This plan will virtually determine what the city’s appearance will be on the threshold of the third millennium” (Izvestiia, June 15, 1974, p. 3). The plan provides for the further reconstruction of the city’s center; the creation of seven major planning zones, in which residential and industrial zones will be distributed; and a harmonious combination of new construction with historical architectural ensembles. Each zone will have its own administrative center, organically linked with the nucleus of Moscow. The plan also envisions the creation of a system of architectural ensembles along the banks of the Moskva River and the construction of a number of principal thoroughfares and streets. In order to ease congestion in the center of the city, the creation of bypass highways was planned, and a system of cultural and consumer services was scheduled for further development. Large landscaped areas will be created, based on the existing municipal parks, boulevards, gardens, and forest parks, which extend into the forests outside the city limits (Sokol’niki, Izmailovo, Kuskovo, Kuz’minki, Tsaritsyno, Losinoostrovskii, and Bitsa). Landscaping is intended for the areas along the banks of the Moskva River that are free of construction.

There are numerous memorials, monuments, and sculptural groups in Moscow. Particularly noteworthy are the monuments to Minin and Pozharskii (bronze and granite, 1804–18, sculptor I. P. Martos), A. S. Pushkin (bronze and granite, 1880, sculptor A. M. Opekushin, architect P. S. Bogomolov), N. V. Gogol (on Suvorov Boulevard, bronze and granite, 1904–09, sculptor N. A. Andreev, architect F. O. Shekhtel’), F. M. Dostoevsky (granite, 1911–13, sculptor S. D. Merkurov), and K. A. Timiriazev (granite, 1923, sculptor S. D. Merkurov, architect D. P. Osipov).

There are also monuments to Maxim Gorky (bronze and granite; 1951; sculptors I. D. Shadr, V. I. Mukhina, and others; architect Z. M. Rozenfel’d), N. V. Gogol (on Gogol Boulevard, bronze and granite, 1952, sculptor N. V. Tomskii, architect L. G. Golubovskii), Iurii Dolgorukii (bronze and granite, 1954, sculptors S. M. Orlov and others, architect V. S. Andreev), V. V. Mayakovsky (bronze, 1958, sculptor A. P. Kibal’nikov), and K. Marx (granite, 1961, sculptor L. E. Kerbel’).

Also in Moscow are monuments to M. Iu. Lermontov (bronze and granite, 1965, sculptor I. D. Brodskii, architect N. N. Milovidov), V. I. Lenin (in the Kremlin; bronze, granite, and labradorite; 1967, sculptor V. B. Pinchuk, architect S. B. Speranskii), V. I. Lenin (on Il’ich Square, bronze and granite, 1967, sculptor G. Iokubonis, architect V. Chekanauskas), G. Dimitrov (bronze and granite, 1972, sculptors K. M. and M. K. Merabishvili, architect R. N. Gvozdev), and S. A. Esenin (bronze, 1972, sculptor VI. E. Tsigal’, architects S. E. Vakhtangov and Iu. V. Iurov). Other monuments include those to L. N. Tolstoy (granite, 1972, sculptor A. M. Portianko, architects V. V. Bogdanov and V. P. Sokolov), A. A. Fadeev (bronze and granite, 1973, sculptor V. A. Fedorov, architects M. E. Konstantinov and V. N. Firsov), and M. I. Kutuzov (bronze and granite, 1973, sculptor N. V. Tomskii, architect L. G. Golubovskii).

Three particularly well-known monuments in Moscow are The Worker and the Female Kolkhoznik (stainless steel, 1937, sculptor V. I. Mukhina), In Commemoration of the Soviet People’s Outstanding Achievements in Space Exploration (bronze, granite, and titanium; 1964, architects M. O. Barshch and A. N. Kolchin, sculptor A. P. Faidysh), and To the Unknown Soldier (1967, architects D. I. Burdin and V. A. Klimov, sculptor N. V. Tomskii).

A. A. SUDARIKOVA and E. N. SIL’VERSVAN

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Lenin i moskovskie bol’sheviki. Moscow, 1969.
Lenin v Moskve. 2nd ed. Moscow, 1970.
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Poletaev, V. E. Na putiakh k novoi Moskve. Moscow, 1961.
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Moscow

the capital of Russia and of the Moscow Autonomous Region, on the Moskva River: dates from the 11th century; capital of the grand duchy of Russia from 1547 to 1712; capital of the Soviet Union 1918--91; centres on the medieval Kremlin; chief political, cultural, and industrial centre of Russia, with two universities. Pop.: 10 672 000 (2005 est.)
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