Moscow River Ports
Moscow River Ports
three river ports (South, North, and West) and two river terminals (North and South) that, together with railroads and highways, constitute the Moscow transportation junction. The average annual navigation period is 215 days. The ports account for more than 20 percent of the total freight turnover of the Moscow transportation junction.
The Moscow River ports were built at the same time as the Moscow Canal, which connects the Volga and Moscow rivers; they began operating in 1937. The ports are connected by waterways with the Central Zone, the South, the Northwest, and the North and are an important factor in the development of the city and oblast of Moscow. The river terminals provide navigation service for more than 7 million inhabitants and visitors of the capital.
The South Port is the largest; it is located on the left bank of the Moscow River. It has 17 berths equipped with bridge cranes, as well as six warehouses, a railroad spur, and a container berth. Transshipment of freight between ships and railroads is done at the Ugreshskaia station. The main types of freight are grain, timber, coal, paper, and building materials. The volume of freight loading and unloading work exceeds a million tons. Because of the waterway conditions, only vessels of less than 2, 000 tons can enter the port.
The North Port is located on the left bank of the Khimki Reservoir. It has 13 berths, five roadsteads, four warehouses, and a container berth. The main types of freight are salt, timber, and building materials. The freight turnover is 6 million tons. The port can serve vessels of up to 5, 000 tons, including vessels for mixed sea and river navigation. The port serves also ships for mixed freight-passenger service and passenger ships in transit. Overall servicing of the fleet is performed in the port (there is an onshore industrial shop, a warehouse for navigational equipment, and centers for the supply of food, fuel, and drinking water). Motor transportation is used to haul freight to and from the port.
The West Port is located on the right bank of the Moscow River. It has five berths and is connected to a railroad line (at the Fili station). Freight turnover is about 30 million tons. The port specializes in the handling of mineral construction materials, such as sand, gravel, and crushed stone. The volume of sand handled in the port is 25 million tons. The port has five freight areas for handling sand, located on the Moscow River (Volokolamskii, Serebrianyi Bor, Nagatino, Besedy, and Zaozer’e). In 1957 the port was the first in the USSR to use hydraulic mechanized unloading of sand. Sand is loaded into special ships by dredge pumps with capacities of 600–1, 000 cu m per hr. The port serves vessels of all types.
The North River Terminal is situated on the left bank of the Khimki Reservoir, adjacent to the river port. It serves passengers on the transit lines from Moscow to Astrakhan, Rostov, Leningrad, Perm’, Ufa, and Volgograd; the local lines from Moscow to Kalinin and Uglich; and the suburban and excursion lines along the Moscow Canal. There are 12 passenger berths and a large park in front of the terminal.
The South River Terminal is situated on a landing on the right bank of the Moscow River (at Nagatino). It serves passengers on the Moscow-Gorky-Moscow transit line (a ring line) and on the Moscow-Riazan’ and Moscow-Konstantinovo local lines.
The operation of the river terminals is controlled by the Moscow Transit Authority. The authority and the ports are controlled by the Moscow River Steamship Office.
IU. T. MAKARENKOV