Mosul


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Mosul

(mō`səl, mōso͞ol`), Arab. al Mawsil, city (1987 pop. 664,221), provincial capital, N Iraq, on the Tigris River, opposite the ruins of NinevehNineveh
, ancient city, capital of the Assyrian Empire, on the Tigris River opposite the site of modern Mosul, Iraq. A shaft dug at Nineveh has yielded a pottery sequence that can be equated with the earliest cultural development in N Mesopotamia.
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. It is the largest city in N Iraq and the third largest city in the country. Trade in agricultural goods and exploitation of oil in the nearby oil fields are the two main occupations of the inhabitants. Mosul has an oil refinery; its productivity in the 1980s was hindered by the Iran-Iraq WarIran-Iraq War,
1980–88, protracted military conflict between Iran and Iraq. It officially began on Sept. 22, 1980, with an Iraqi land and air invasion of western Iran, although Iraqi spokespersons maintained that Iran had been engaging in artillery attacks on Iraqi towns
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. While most of the urban population is Arab, the surrounding region has a large Kurdish population. The city is the seat of Mosul Univ. and a center of Nestorian Christianity.

Mosul was the chief city of N Mesopotamia from the 8th to 13th cent., when it was devastated by the Mongols. The city remained poor and shabby through its occupation by the Persians (1508) and the Turks (1534–1918). Under the British occupation and mandate (1918–32) it regained its stature as the chief city of the region. Its possession by Iraq was disputed by Turkey (1923–25) but was confirmed by the League of Nations (1926). Many of Mosul's historic mosques and shrines as well as an ancient monastery nearby were destroyed by Islamic StateIslamic State
(IS), Sunni Islamic militant group committed to the establishment of an Islamic caliphate that would unite Muslims in a transnational, strict-fundamentalist Islamic state.
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 militants after they captured the city in 2014. The Iraqi government began an offensive to retake Mosul in late 2016, largely winning control of Mosul E of Tigris by early 2017; much of E Mosul was destroyed in the fighting.

Mosul

 

(al Mawsil), a city in northern Iraq, on the right bank of the Tigris River; administrative center of the Ninawa muhafaza. Population, 343,000 (1968). Railroad station and highway junction. Mosul has textile, food, leather goods and footwear, and metalworking industries. There is commerce in grain, fruit, and livestock. Nearby oil is extracted (Ayn Zalah), and there are cement and asphalt plants.

According to some sources, Mosul was a suburb of ancient Nineveh. In 641 the city was occupied by the Arabs and became part of the Arab Caliphate. Because it was located on the most important trade routes, Mosul became a major trade and handicraft center. Between the tenth and 12th centuries it was the capital of the various feudal states. In 1261, Mosul was taken and plundered by the Mongols. Almost continually from the early 16th century to 1918, the city belonged to the Ottoman Turks; in the 1860’s it was made the administrative center of the Mosul vilayet of the Ottoman Empire. After World War I, Mosul was occupied by British troops; in 1920 it became part of Iraq.

The medieval city, which was surrounded by a stone wall (12th century; destroyed in 1743), contains the Great Mosque of Nur-al-din (also known as Jami al-Kabir, 1170–72, reconstructed from the 12th to the 19th century) and its minaret (12th century), the al-Izziya Madrasa (12th century), the ruins of the Qara Saray Palace (13th century), the mausoleum of Yahya Abi’l Qasim (13th century), and the mausoleum of Aun al-Din (1247). Christian churches include those of Mar Ahudammah (tenth century) and Mar Shimun (13th century, reconstructed in 1936). Outside the city walls are 20th-century blocks with a regular layout (architects R. Squire and others). Near Mosul is the mausoleum mosque of Nabi Yunus (tenth century; dome, 14th century).

REFERENCES

Mosul and Its Neighbouring District, 2nd ed. Baghdad, 1956.
Fiey, J. M. Mossoul chrétienne. Beirut, 1959.

Mosul

a city in N Iraq, on the River Tigris opposite the ruins of Nineveh: an important commercial centre with nearby Ayn Zalah oilfield; university. Pop.: 1 236 000 (2005 est.)
References in periodicals archive ?
He said that the forthcoming few days "shall witness the departure of another delegation, representing the chieftains and leaders of Ramadi tribes, to share in the sit-in demonstration, in solidarity with the citizens of Mosul.
The source added: "The organization executed 23 from the people of Mosul, who were pasting electoral propaganda posters in the streets of Mosul for / Muttahiddon list / in the last parliamentary elections.
Mosul has entered its 18th day, witnessing demonstrations and sit-in gatherings since April 9th, before the closure of the roads leading to al-Ahrar Square in central Mosul.
He added that "the Grand Mufti (Abu Ayyub), known by the people of Mosul for his unjust judgment against unarmed civilians, where hundreds of innocent residents of Mosul subjected to most heinous crimes and punishments by orders of the Mufti, which caused the killing of hundreds of members of the security forces, judges, journalists and other civilians ".
NINEWA / Aswat al-Iraq: An officer and a soldier were killed and two other soldiers wounded in an improvised explosive device attack west of Mosul city on Thursday, a local security source said.
A similar story run by Mosul Eye on Wednesday made a bigger claim that the bodies of 134 slain police and security officers were delivered to Aljamhouri Hospital.
The administration in Mosul demanded weapons aid from Turkey for the troops who are currently being trained and conveyed the demand through Iraqi Prime Minister Haidar al-Abadi and Defense Minister Khaled al-Obeidi, according to al-Nujaif.
Assisted by airstrikes, peshmerga fighters advanced from five directions and took a commanding position above a crossroads at Kiske, 40 km west of Mosul.
It also indicated that a soldier was killed by unknown insurgents at a military checkpoint in Baladiyat town, northern Mosul, pointing out that another soldier was killed by an attack conducted by unknown armed men at a military checkpoint in Hai town in western Mosul.
Through this new route addition, the airline aims to boost its presence in the Iraqi market, help the growing air transport between the two countries, in general, and serve, in particular, businessmen, students and Jordanian and Iraqi citizens wishing to fly to Mosul, the second largest city in Iraq in terms of population.
Initially, the airline will operate two weekly flights to Mosul, on Tuesdays and on Saturdays, raising the number of frequencies between Jordan and Iraq to 28 weekly, together with the nine weekly flights to each of Baghdad and Erbil and the four weekly flights to each of Basra and Sulaymaniyah.
Officials in Mosul said that they were expecting Turkish entrepreneurs to invest in infrastructure projects worth of millions of U.