a type of artillery designed for action on mountains and on strongly broken terrain that is difficult to cross. Mountain artillery is equipped with light cannon, howitzers, and infantry mortars. In an organizational sense mountain artillery battalions (or batteries) are included in the composition of forces designated for action in mountainous conditions. Mountain guns and mortars are designed to be transported in stripped form in packs carried by horses or other animals and also for being pulled by horses or machines. The number of packs depends on the design of the gun (or mortar). The weight of one pack is usually not more than 100–120 kg. There are a number of special aspects to the combat use of mountain artillery and its fire. which require special training of personnel.
Mountain artillery originated in various European armies in the late 18th and early 19th centuries. In Russia a 12-gun mountain battery formed in 1842 marked the beginning of Russian mountain artillery. Later Russian mountain artillery was armed with the 1883 model of the 2.5-inch mountain cannon and the 1909 model 76-mm mountain cannon. By the start of the Great Patriotic War (1941–45), Soviet mountain artillery had about 2,500 mountain guns and infantry mortars. The use of grenade launchers and helicopters reduces the importance of pack artillery.
REFERENCESlsloriia olechestvennoi artillerii,vols. 1–3, books 1–4, 7–8.Moscow-Leningrad, 1959–64.
Kurs artillerii,3rd ed.. book 1. Moscow, 1948.