Mozarabs

(redirected from Mozarabic)
Also found in: Dictionary, Wikipedia.
Related to Mozarabic: Mozarabic architecture

Mozarabs

(mōzâr`əbz), Christians of Muslim Spain. Their position was the usual one of Christians and Jews in Islam: they were a separate community, locally autonomous, and they paid a special tax in place of the requirement made of Muslims to serve in the army. In Spain the Christians had their own rulers, called counts, who were directly responsible to the Muslim emir or caliph; their taxes, separate from those of Muslims, were collected by special agents. They were allowed to maintain their hierarchy (the primate of Spain being the archbishop of Toledo), and they used the Visigothic, not the Muslim, canon law. Their liturgy, called the Mozarabic rite, was like that of ancient Gaul. It is preserved only in chapels at Toledo and Salamanca. For one or two periods, notably in the 11th cent., the Mozarabs were persecuted. The chief Mozarab centers were Toledo, Seville, and Córdoba. The Christians were probably Arabic-speaking, and their culture, basically Romance-Visigothic, was heavily influenced by Muslim civilization. In turn, the Mozarabs greatly influenced modern Spanish culture.

Mozarabs

 

Spanish Christians of the Iberian Peninsula who lived in lands conquered by the Arabs in the eighth century and who adopted Arabic language and culture.

Although most Mozarabs spoke not only Arabic but also the local Romance language, Arabization had progressed so far in a number of their communities that in the tenth century the Gospels were translated into Arabic for them. Many Mozarabs had Arabic names. Under the Umayyads they had their own legal code and law courts and their own churches and monasteries. Many Mozarabs were in the service of the Muslim rulers.

Under the Almoravid and Almohad dynasties, the position of the Mozarabs deteriorated sharply. They were forced to accept Islam; those who refused were executed or expelled from the country. The Mozarabs who resettled in the northern Iberian Peninsula for a long time remained distinct in their customs and language from the local inhabitants and exercised a great cultural influence on them.

References in periodicals archive ?
The book, "a declaration of love to the Mediterranean and its rich welter of peoples and cultures," consists of eight essays: on Xenophon and the Anabasis, on Seneca's Epistolae morales ad Lucilium, on Josephus ("the Renegade"), on Moorish and Mozarabic and Jewish Spain ("a meeting of three worlds"), on Francis of Assisi ("the patron saint of the ecologists"), on "mysterious Byzantium," on Don Quixote and his Spain (more penetrating and less self-concerned than Thomas Mann's "Meerfahrt mit Don Quixote"), and the "vulcanic earth" of Sicily.
In partial support of her contention, she quoted a capitulum from the Mozarabic Liber ordinum that reads "Ordo ad ordinandam abbatissam.
She asserts that in the liturgical sense in Spain--a most important milieu for judging Spanish society given the universal acceptance throughout the land of the need to establish mediation between the human and the divine spheres--"change from the Mozarabic to the Roman liturgy, which was formally initiated at the Council of Burgos in 1080, seemed to provide a suitable subject from the practical and the theoretical angles" (21).
Within decades of the boy's martyrdom narratives circulated and he began to be honored as a saint, whose cult included a Mozarabic text for Vespers, Matins, and Mass.
In his survey of Muslim Spain, for example, Ruth writes that a "description of the Mozarabic Christians and the Jews as having been subjugated minorities quietly chafing under the restraint of Muslim laws is simply wrong" (JVM, 42).
The means he employed to exploit the structural potential of brick in the new Quarr Abbey church owed much to his reading of Auguste Choisy's analysis of the history of architecture,(19) enriched by his own experiments in earlier building phases at Oosterhout and Quarr, by his recently acquired knowledge of Dutch architecture and the first-hand studies he had made as a student of Mozarabic, Mudejar, Romanesque and Gothic architecture in Spain.
He published two articles on Romanesque art that year, "From Mozarabic to Romanesque in Silos" and "The Sculptures of Souillac.
Susan Boynton combines the crudities of expert musicologist with those of master storyteller in her engaging treatment of the history of the Mozarabic liturgy in Toledo from the twelfth to the eighteenth century.
Ildefonsus was bishop of Toledo during the seventh century who promoted devotion to Mary in the Mozarabic liturgy and authored a book supporting her perpetual virginity, De virginitate Mariae contra tres infideles.
And, for that matter, a similar detailed study of other Western liturgical traditions (Gallican, Mozarabic, Ambrosian) would also be welcome.
In opposition to the opinions upheld by the Rodriguista segment of Mozarabic society during Spain's Islamic period, Luna follows the legend's Muslim variant, portraying Rodrigo, not Vitiza, as given to carnal vices.
28) of the Mozarabic community in the later middle ages.