Mozarabs

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Mozarabs

(mōzâr`əbz), Christians of Muslim Spain. Their position was the usual one of Christians and Jews in Islam: they were a separate community, locally autonomous, and they paid a special tax in place of the requirement made of Muslims to serve in the army. In Spain the Christians had their own rulers, called counts, who were directly responsible to the Muslim emir or caliph; their taxes, separate from those of Muslims, were collected by special agents. They were allowed to maintain their hierarchy (the primate of Spain being the archbishop of Toledo), and they used the Visigothic, not the Muslim, canon law. Their liturgy, called the Mozarabic rite, was like that of ancient Gaul. It is preserved only in chapels at Toledo and Salamanca. For one or two periods, notably in the 11th cent., the Mozarabs were persecuted. The chief Mozarab centers were Toledo, Seville, and Córdoba. The Christians were probably Arabic-speaking, and their culture, basically Romance-Visigothic, was heavily influenced by Muslim civilization. In turn, the Mozarabs greatly influenced modern Spanish culture.

Mozarabs

 

Spanish Christians of the Iberian Peninsula who lived in lands conquered by the Arabs in the eighth century and who adopted Arabic language and culture.

Although most Mozarabs spoke not only Arabic but also the local Romance language, Arabization had progressed so far in a number of their communities that in the tenth century the Gospels were translated into Arabic for them. Many Mozarabs had Arabic names. Under the Umayyads they had their own legal code and law courts and their own churches and monasteries. Many Mozarabs were in the service of the Muslim rulers.

Under the Almoravid and Almohad dynasties, the position of the Mozarabs deteriorated sharply. They were forced to accept Islam; those who refused were executed or expelled from the country. The Mozarabs who resettled in the northern Iberian Peninsula for a long time remained distinct in their customs and language from the local inhabitants and exercised a great cultural influence on them.

References in periodicals archive ?
Patristic Exegesis, Mozarabic Antiphons, and the VetusLatina"", Speculum, 40, pp.
Rodrigo follows the example of the Mozarabic Chronicle of 754, and that of other early Christian histories by ignoring the religious component of the Muslim threat (10).
lt;<Isidore's Histories in the Mozarabic scholarship of the eighth and the early ninth centuries>>, en Farmhouse Alberto, P.
It moves through the Romanization of Iberia, the Visigothic and Muslim invasions, the now-extinct Mozarabic variety, and the reconquest and it is a broad overview of the external circumstances that affected the Spanish language during that period.
Other features of the book that are useful and/or engaging are the questions and exercises at the end of each chapter (although some questions are decidedly more broad than others), the textual analyses and commentary featured in Chapters 4-7, 9, and the informational sidebars that treat intriguing topics such Mozarabic (42) and Judeo-Spanish (144-145), or which serve to dispel oft-repeated myths about the Spanish language, e.
inherent Moorish Anadalusian overtones, a eulogy on the tiles would possibly be best served up in the Castilian- Mozarabic dialect of that region.
The situation of the Mozarabs is traced from the earliest period through the 17th century, when he provides a discussion of the fate of Mozarabic liturgy under Catholic rule.
The language in which they were written is an archaic dialect spoken in Southern Spain known as Mozarabic.
The word itself may have arisen at this time, since it likely derives from the Mozarabic term "caspa," meaning "fragments.
Examples of such meaningful form can be witnessed in the famous Book of Kells, as well as the early Northumbrian manuscripts, the Lindisfarne Gospels, mozarabic illuminations, and other documents.
Ir has been lent a special attention to the plates of the mozarabic codices accomplished in Spain from the Centuries X to the XIII, in those which is made use of iconography elements different to accomplish in those same eras in Lorvao, Portugal, about area of important historical seismicity.
As far as geographical variation is concerned, Penny firstly offers an account of Mozarabic and its relevance to the Northern dialect continuum.