Muawiyah I

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Muawiyah I

 

Date of birth unknown; died 680. Founder and first caliph of the Umayyad dynasty. Muawiyah came from the aristocracy of the Quraysh tribe. In 639 he became vice-gerent of Syria. In 657 he took arms against Caliph Ali; after Ali was slain by the Kharijites in 661, Muawiyah was proclaimed caliph. Muawiyah established the dynastic principle of absolute rule by the caliph. During his rule, Damascus became the capital of the Umayyad caliphate.

REFERENCE

Beliaev, E. A. Araby, islam i arabskii khalifat v rannee srednevekov’e. Moscow, 1965. (See index of names.)
References in periodicals archive ?
Many traditions were fabricated after the three internal Muslim wars, in the time of Imam Ali (a) and Mu'awiyah, validating one or the other [33].
from Mu'awiyah (the first Umayyad caliph) on, the group feeling (of the Arabs) approached its final goal, royal authority.
The Mother of the Believers, Umm Habiba Ramla bint Abi Sufyan, Allah be pleased with her, was the wife of the Messenger of Allah, Allah bless him and grant him peace, the daughter of Abu Sufyan and the sister of Mu'awiyah.
The expedition to conquer this island began during the time of Mu'awiyah who governed Sham then.
Mustafaa, Mu'awiyah and Mina and everyone from Mahad-ul-Furqan, March 2012
He instructed his governor in Syria, Mu'awiyah ibn Abi Sufyan to prepare for such an attack.
Mauritanian Generals Mohammad Ould Abdul-Aziz and Ali Ould Mohammad Vall have in common the fact that they toppled the regime of President Mu'awiyah Ould Ahmad Al-Tayeh four years ago through a concerted effort that included all sectors of the army.
Dr Mu'awiyah Hussain appealed to the World Health Organisation (WHO) and its representatives to find a speedy mechanism to provide the Gaza Strip with aid, medical supplies and medicine.
30) Here, her claim may be more plausible, as it is more likely to find embellishment by devout followers in their descriptions of the accomplishments of someone whom they believe to be the "Seal of the Prophets" than in their more mundane accounts relating that Abu Sufyan customarily led commercial caravans, that the banu Sulaym mined gold, or that Caliph Mu'awiyah was a grower of grapes.
When Mu'awiyah invited me to the Qur'an for a decision, I could not turn my face away from the Book of Allah.
Nevertheless, the writing of Kitab Sirah Mu'awiyah wa Bani Umayyah by 'Awanah b.
Ali, who had founded Shi'ism, was killed in 661 by the forces of Mu'awiyah who avenged his cousin Uthman and took over the 4th Caliphate.