13) Unlike Imam Ahmad Ibn Hanbal and other scholars who were persecuted for refusing to submit to the state imposed Mu'tazili
doctrine of the created Qur'an, al-Muhasibi seemed to have escaped the infamous mihnah or inquisition instituted by the caliph al-Ma'mun, (14) a fact that was probably due to his low profile relative to other more prominent scholars like Imam Ahmad, and his own aversion to the public life and consequently his negligible political or social influence amongst the general populace.
42) Specifically on the issue of interpreting divine attributes, Mu'tazilis
(43) categorically denied them (ta'til), explaining away these predicates figuratively (ta'wil): God's "hand" symbolizes His power, istiwa' His seizure or occupation of a thing by force, and the like, whereas Ash'aris affirmed God's attributes like "knowledge" ('ilm), "will" (irada), "power" (qudra), "life" (hayat), "hearing" (sam'), "sight" (basar), "speech" (kalam), "face" (wajh), "eyes" (a'yun), and so forth, linking them to the eternal divine essence (dhat) but "without asking how" (bi-la kayf).
It has generally been held that his work was ignored by Mu'tazili
scholars of his time, and passed down among students of medicine for a century until it was revived and espoused by a Mu'tazili
leader in Central Asia a century later.
321/973), another Mu'tazili
theologian, tried to modify the theory of Nazzam by considering the importance of the expressive power of the wording, jazalat al-lafz, alongside the beauty of the meaning, husn al-ma'na, to claim the eloquence of a given discourse.
Nasution was strongly influenced by the Mu'tazili
group, which regarded rational thinking as the source of its theology.
Regarding some broader views of essence and existence, the ash'ari mutakalimun (exponents of kalam) held that existence and essence are the same for the Necessary Existent (wajib al-wujud) and the contingent beings, while according to mu'tazili
kalam only existence has the same meaning for the Necessary Existent and the contingent beings.
Abi Talib, composed by the Mu'tazili
(and probably Shiite) scholar
Al-Sahib Ibn 'Abbad Promoter of Rational Theology: Two Mu'tazili
Kalam Texts From the Cairo Geniza
In the history of Kalam, this analogy was used by various theological schools including the Hashawl (al-Hashwiyya), the Mu'tazili
, and the Ash'ari.
En su estudio introductorio, Segovia aclara bien esta cuestion y, por lo tanto, observa que en cierto sentido la filosofia de Avicena es una prolongacion de la teologia (Kalam) mu'tazili
theologian Abu l-Qasim al-Balkhi/al-Ka'bi had considerable followers and a good reputation during his lifetime, says Omari, he left no posthumous school in which his theology would be represented without bias, and none of this theological works have survived.
A survey of surviving literary production from the ninth and tenth centuries shows that for some reason the Shafii's--and especially the more traditionalist wing of al-Shafii's intellectual descendants--were much more successful in preserving and transmitting their works to posterity than were their Hanafi, Mu'tazili
, and Zahiri counterparts.