In addition, it makes a difference whether an usuli belongs to the school of the theologians (mainly Mu'tazilis
and Shafi'is) or the jurists (Hanafis).
42) Specifically on the issue of interpreting divine attributes, Mu'tazilis
(43) categorically denied them (ta'til), explaining away these predicates figuratively (ta'wil): God's "hand" symbolizes His power, istiwa' His seizure or occupation of a thing by force, and the like, whereas Ash'aris affirmed God's attributes like "knowledge" ('ilm), "will" (irada), "power" (qudra), "life" (hayat), "hearing" (sam'), "sight" (basar), "speech" (kalam), "face" (wajh), "eyes" (a'yun), and so forth, linking them to the eternal divine essence (dhat) but "without asking how" (bi-la kayf).
It has generally been held that his work was ignored by Mu'tazili
scholars of his time, and passed down among students of medicine for a century until it was revived and espoused by a Mu'tazili
leader in Central Asia a century later.
321/973), another Mu'tazili
theologian, tried to modify the theory of Nazzam by considering the importance of the expressive power of the wording, jazalat al-lafz, alongside the beauty of the meaning, husn al-ma'na, to claim the eloquence of a given discourse.
Ibn Mattawayh's treatise is thus structured in terms of basic Basran Mu'tazili
ontology, which distinguishes between atoms (jawahir) and their aggregates, including organisms such as human beings, and the various accidents (a'rad) that may inhere in these atoms.
Yet its detailed exposition had to await the discovery and publication of Mu'tazili
texts following the Egyptian expedition to Yemen in the 1950s.
111) The amir did not make any provisions, and Ibn 'Abbad encouraged Mu'ayyid al-Dawla to seek repentance and instructed him in the Mu'tazili
doctrine of repentance in the moments prior to his death.
468-93) by Bruce Fudge, who provides a close reading of the Mu'tazili
Tafsir of al-Rummani (d.
370/980), despite his Mu'tazili
commitments, rejected the idea that maslaha could serve as the ratio legis in analogical reasoning because God's purpose for humans generally "lies beyond the grasp of human intellect" (p.
bar]m: Atoms, Space and Void in Basrian Mu'tazili
Cosmology (Leiden: E.
For instance, Helmut Gatje's The Qur'an and Its Exegesis covers a much wider spectrum of themes than On the Nature of the Divine, but its first nine sections are almost entirely derived from two medieval commentaries: the Mu'tazili
It was a neat move against both Mu'tazili
rationalists and Hanafi juristic reasoners.