a site of Mesolithic shell mounds (Tardenoisian culture) in Portugal, in the valley of the Tagus River. Mugem was abandoned by tribes of primitive hunters and gatherers. The site was discovered in 1863 by the Portuguese archaeologist F. Pereira da Costa. Excavations revealed numerous shells from sea mollusks and the bones of domestic dogs and wild animals of the modern species. Primitive bone implements and microliths trapezoidal and triangular in form were also discovered. At the base of the shell heaps were found more than 200 human graves, mainly of women and children, of the same epoch. By using the radiocarbon method, it has been determined that some of the finds of the lower layers date back to 5300 B.C.
REFERENCESEfimenko, P. P. Pervobytnoe obshchestvo, 3rd ed. Kiev, 1953.
Obermaier, H. Fossil Man in Spain. New Haven, 1924.