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Mogul(mō`gəl, mōgŭl`), Muslim empire in India, 1526–1857. The dynasty was founded by BaburBabur
[Turk.,=lion], 1483–1530, founder of the Mughal empire of India. His full name was Zahir ud-Din Muhammad. A descendant of Timur (Tamerlane) and of Jenghiz Khan, he succeeded (1494) to the principality of Fergana in central Asia.
..... Click the link for more information. , a Turkic chieftain who had his base in Afghanistan. Babur's invasion of India culminated in the battle of Panipat (1526) and the occupation of Delhi and Agra. Babur was succeeded by his son, HumayunHumayun
, 1507–56, second Mughal emperor of India (1530–56), son and successor of Babur. In 1535, pressed by enemy incursions into Rajasthan, Humayun defeated the formidable Bahadur Shah of Gujarat.
..... Click the link for more information. , who soon lost the empire to the Afghan Sher Khan. AkbarAkbar
, 1542–1605, Mughal emperor of India (1556–1605); son of Humayun, grandson of Babur. He succeeded to the throne under a regent, Bairam Khan, who rendered loyal service in expanding and consolidating the Mughal domains before he was summarily dismissed (1560) by
..... Click the link for more information. , the son of Humayun and the greatest of the Mughal emperors, reestablished Mughal power in India. At the time of Akbar's death (1605), the empire occupied a vast territory from Afghanistan E to Odisha (Orissa) and S to the Deccan Plateau. Mughal expansion continued under Akbar's son JahangirJahangir
, 1569–1627, Mughal emperor of India (1605–27), son of Akbar. He continued his father's policy of expansion. The Rajput principality of Mewar (Udaipur) capitulated in 1614.
..... Click the link for more information. and under his grandson Shah JahanShah Jahan
or Shah Jehan
, 1592–1666, Mughal emperor of India (1628–58), son and successor of Jahangir. His full name was Khurram Shihab-ud-din Muhammad. He rebelled against his father in 1622 but was pardoned and succeeded to the throne in 1628.
..... Click the link for more information. , who built many architectural marvels at Delhi and at Agra (including the Taj Mahal). AurangzebAurangzeb
, 1618–1707, Mughal emperor of India (1658–1707), son and successor of Shah Jahan. He served (1636–44, 1653–58) as viceroy of the Deccan but was constantly at odds with his father and his eldest brother, Dara Shikoh, the
..... Click the link for more information. , expanded Mughal territory to its greatest extent, but at the same time the empire suffered the blows of major Hindu revolts. The most serious of these was the Maratha uprising. Weakened by the Maratha wars, dynastic struggles, and invasions by Persian and Afghan rulers, the empire came to an effective end as the British established control of India in the late 18th and early 19th cent. However, the British maintained puppet emperors until 1857. Many features of the Mughal administrative system were adopted by Great Britain in ruling India, but the most lasting achievements of the Mughals were in art and architecture (see Mughal art and architectureMughal art and architecture,
a characteristic Indo-Islamic-Persian style that flourished on the Indian subcontinent during the Mughal empire (1526–1857). This new style combined elements of Islamic art and architecture, which had been introduced to India during the Delhi
..... Click the link for more information. ).
See J. Sarkar, Fall of the Mughal Empire (2d ed., 4 vol., 1949–52, repr. 1972); A. L. Srivastava, The Mughal Empire, 1526–1803 (6th rev. ed. 1971); W. Hansen, Peacock Throne (1986).