Mughal


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Mughal

(mo͞ogŭl`) or

Mogul

(mō`gəl, mōgŭl`), Muslim empire in India, 1526–1857. The dynasty was founded by BaburBabur
[Turk.,=lion], 1483–1530, founder of the Mughal empire of India. His full name was Zahir ud-Din Muhammad. A descendant of Timur (Tamerlane) and of Jenghiz Khan, he succeeded (1494) to the principality of Fergana in central Asia.
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, a Turkic chieftain who had his base in Afghanistan. Babur's invasion of India culminated in the battle of Panipat (1526) and the occupation of Delhi and Agra. Babur was succeeded by his son, HumayunHumayun
or Homayun
, 1507–56, second Mughal emperor of India (1530–56), son and successor of Babur. In 1535, pressed by enemy incursions into Rajasthan, Humayun defeated the formidable Bahadur Shah of Gujarat.
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, who soon lost the empire to the Afghan Sher Khan. AkbarAkbar
, 1542–1605, Mughal emperor of India (1556–1605); son of Humayun, grandson of Babur. He succeeded to the throne under a regent, Bairam Khan, who rendered loyal service in expanding and consolidating the Mughal domains before he was summarily dismissed (1560) by
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, the son of Humayun and the greatest of the Mughal emperors, reestablished Mughal power in India. At the time of Akbar's death (1605), the empire occupied a vast territory from Afghanistan E to Odisha (Orissa) and S to the Deccan Plateau. Mughal expansion continued under Akbar's son JahangirJahangir
or Jehangir
, 1569–1627, Mughal emperor of India (1605–27), son of Akbar. He continued his father's policy of expansion. The Rajput principality of Mewar (Udaipur) capitulated in 1614.
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 and under his grandson Shah JahanShah Jahan
or Shah Jehan
, 1592–1666, Mughal emperor of India (1628–58), son and successor of Jahangir. His full name was Khurram Shihab-ud-din Muhammad. He rebelled against his father in 1622 but was pardoned and succeeded to the throne in 1628.
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, who built many architectural marvels at Delhi and at Agra (including the Taj Mahal). AurangzebAurangzeb
or Aurangzib
, 1618–1707, Mughal emperor of India (1658–1707), son and successor of Shah Jahan. He served (1636–44, 1653–58) as viceroy of the Deccan but was constantly at odds with his father and his eldest brother, Dara Shikoh, the
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, expanded Mughal territory to its greatest extent, but at the same time the empire suffered the blows of major Hindu revolts. The most serious of these was the Maratha uprising. Weakened by the Maratha wars, dynastic struggles, and invasions by Persian and Afghan rulers, the empire came to an effective end as the British established control of India in the late 18th and early 19th cent. However, the British maintained puppet emperors until 1857. Many features of the Mughal administrative system were adopted by Great Britain in ruling India, but the most lasting achievements of the Mughals were in art and architecture (see Mughal art and architectureMughal art and architecture,
a characteristic Indo-Islamic-Persian style that flourished on the Indian subcontinent during the Mughal empire (1526–1857). This new style combined elements of Islamic art and architecture, which had been introduced to India during the Delhi
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).

Bibliography

See J. Sarkar, Fall of the Mughal Empire (2d ed., 4 vol., 1949–52, repr. 1972); A. L. Srivastava, The Mughal Empire, 1526–1803 (6th rev. ed. 1971); W. Hansen, Peacock Throne (1986).

References in periodicals archive ?
Dr Mughal said that now the incumbent government is facing a difficult choice as operationalization of the power plants will burden national exchequer by Rs30 billion annually, moreover, spending billion on a 425 MW power plant which cannot work beyond three weeks and whose generation cost is Rs 42 per unit cannot be justified.
Murtaza Mughal, President PEW said that many countries put off sale of bonds due to unfavourable market conditions while Pakistan opted for sale on will country will have to pay 8.
Saqib Bhatti, president of the ABCC, said: "We are delighted to have secured Dr Mughal, a recognised global expert in his field of manufacturing.
Bilal Mughal, got a great appreciations from former IBSF World Champion Mohammad Asif, world championship runners-up Mohammad Sajjad and reigning Asian Champion Hamza Akbar for imparting coaching on them.
So the texts ascribed to Jamasp are difficult to accept as a successful archetype for subsequent Safavid and Mughal documents on sacral kingship, despite containing elements of value to court chroniclers.
Mughal said that considering the size of Nigeria's economy, the development of the Halal industry in the country will be important.
Convicting Mughal, Sessions Judge Vrushali Joshi said a case of murder, molestation and criminal trespass has been proved against him, following which the accused silently nodded.
Mr Burton uploaded his insults following claims that Mr Mughal, who runs Tell Mama UK which monitors anti-Muslim attacks, had exaggerated such attacks after the death of drummer Lee Rigby.
The Mughal Road is a lifeline for border villages of the Kashmir Valley.
Besides, studies of flowers and plants are well known in Mughal and Company School painting.
The first room contains what is probably the earliest surviving Mughal document, a land grant by the first Mughal Emperor, Babur (1483-1530), alongside late 16th-century paintings (Fig.
But opener Ashraf Mughal put up a brave front and found in captain Tahir Dar a good ally to begin a rescue mission.