Mughal

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Related to Mughal Empire: Babur, Aurangzeb, Taj Mahal

Mughal

(mo͞ogŭl`) or

Mogul

(mō`gəl, mōgŭl`), Muslim empire in India, 1526–1857. The dynasty was founded by BaburBabur
[Turk.,=lion], 1483–1530, founder of the Mughal empire of India. His full name was Zahir ud-Din Muhammad. A descendant of Timur (Tamerlane) and of Jenghiz Khan, he succeeded (1494) to the principality of Fergana in central Asia.
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, a Turkic chieftain who had his base in Afghanistan. Babur's invasion of India culminated in the battle of Panipat (1526) and the occupation of Delhi and Agra. Babur was succeeded by his son, HumayunHumayun
or Homayun
, 1507–56, second Mughal emperor of India (1530–56), son and successor of Babur. In 1535, pressed by enemy incursions into Rajasthan, Humayun defeated the formidable Bahadur Shah of Gujarat.
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, who soon lost the empire to the Afghan Sher Khan. AkbarAkbar
, 1542–1605, Mughal emperor of India (1556–1605); son of Humayun, grandson of Babur. He succeeded to the throne under a regent, Bairam Khan, who rendered loyal service in expanding and consolidating the Mughal domains before he was summarily dismissed (1560) by
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, the son of Humayun and the greatest of the Mughal emperors, reestablished Mughal power in India. At the time of Akbar's death (1605), the empire occupied a vast territory from Afghanistan E to Odisha (Orissa) and S to the Deccan Plateau. Mughal expansion continued under Akbar's son JahangirJahangir
or Jehangir
, 1569–1627, Mughal emperor of India (1605–27), son of Akbar. He continued his father's policy of expansion. The Rajput principality of Mewar (Udaipur) capitulated in 1614.
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 and under his grandson Shah JahanShah Jahan
or Shah Jehan
, 1592–1666, Mughal emperor of India (1628–58), son and successor of Jahangir. His full name was Khurram Shihab-ud-din Muhammad. He rebelled against his father in 1622 but was pardoned and succeeded to the throne in 1628.
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, who built many architectural marvels at Delhi and at Agra (including the Taj Mahal). AurangzebAurangzeb
or Aurangzib
, 1618–1707, Mughal emperor of India (1658–1707), son and successor of Shah Jahan. He served (1636–44, 1653–58) as viceroy of the Deccan but was constantly at odds with his father and his eldest brother, Dara Shikoh, the
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, expanded Mughal territory to its greatest extent, but at the same time the empire suffered the blows of major Hindu revolts. The most serious of these was the Maratha uprising. Weakened by the Maratha wars, dynastic struggles, and invasions by Persian and Afghan rulers, the empire came to an effective end as the British established control of India in the late 18th and early 19th cent. However, the British maintained puppet emperors until 1857. Many features of the Mughal administrative system were adopted by Great Britain in ruling India, but the most lasting achievements of the Mughals were in art and architecture (see Mughal art and architectureMughal art and architecture,
a characteristic Indo-Islamic-Persian style that flourished on the Indian subcontinent during the Mughal empire (1526–1857). This new style combined elements of Islamic art and architecture, which had been introduced to India during the Delhi
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).

Bibliography

See J. Sarkar, Fall of the Mughal Empire (2d ed., 4 vol., 1949–52, repr. 1972); A. L. Srivastava, The Mughal Empire, 1526–1803 (6th rev. ed. 1971); W. Hansen, Peacock Throne (1986).

References in periodicals archive ?
He even witnessed a part of the period when the decline of the Mughal Empire set in after Aurangzeb Alamgir's death.
8 Mahbul Hassan, Babur, Founder of the Mughal Empire in India, PP.
In various chapters, he explores Hindu-Muslim relations, pointing out that even at the time of the Mughal Empire, when the Muslims ruled the subcontinent, the local cultures of India overlapped with the ones that were bought over by the rulers from their countries of origin.
Specialising in fresh seafood, the interiors make guests feel as if they are enter a rustic mansion of the Mughal Empire with the art work influenced by ancient Indian art and culture.
Rabia-ud-Daurani (1622 - 1657) was the Empress of the Mughal Empire as the first wife and chief consort of Emperor Aurangzeb, the last of the great Mughal Emperors.
PNS Alamgir, named after Emperor Aurangzeb Alamgir, the sixth ruler of the Great Mughal Empire, is a 4,100 tonner with an overall length of 138.
Losty and Malini Roy have lovingly assembled some of the best representations of Mughal art and manuscripts from the collection at the British Library and presented them as a visual statement of the prowess and artistic achievements of the once-great Mughal empire.
The Mughal Empire, ruling mostly Hindu people, adhered to Sunnism.
During the feudal and colonial periods, Bhils were employed on the strength of their skills as shikaris (hunters) by the Rajputs, and as warriors by Maharana Pratap, who was waging a guerilla war against the Mughal Empire.
The greatest value of the essays lies in the detailed analyses of select portions of the Persian documents that collectively provide a wide range of new insights into the world and world views of Persian-language writers in the Mughal empire.
It was first recorded in the holdings of the Royal family of Hyderabad, which was one of the wealthiest provinces of the Mughal Empire.
The Mughal empire was one of the largest centralized states known in pre-modern world history.