Mughal

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Related to Mughal Empire: Babur, Aurangzeb, Taj Mahal

Mughal

(mo͞ogŭl`) or

Mogul

(mō`gəl, mōgŭl`), Muslim empire in India, 1526–1857. The dynasty was founded by BaburBabur
[Turk.,=lion], 1483–1530, founder of the Mughal empire of India. His full name was Zahir ud-Din Muhammad. A descendant of Timur (Tamerlane) and of Jenghiz Khan, he succeeded (1494) to the principality of Fergana in central Asia.
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, a Turkic chieftain who had his base in Afghanistan. Babur's invasion of India culminated in the battle of Panipat (1526) and the occupation of Delhi and Agra. Babur was succeeded by his son, HumayunHumayun
or Homayun
, 1507–56, second Mughal emperor of India (1530–56), son and successor of Babur. In 1535, pressed by enemy incursions into Rajasthan, Humayun defeated the formidable Bahadur Shah of Gujarat.
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, who soon lost the empire to the Afghan Sher Khan. AkbarAkbar
, 1542–1605, Mughal emperor of India (1556–1605); son of Humayun, grandson of Babur. He succeeded to the throne under a regent, Bairam Khan, who rendered loyal service in expanding and consolidating the Mughal domains before he was summarily dismissed (1560) by
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, the son of Humayun and the greatest of the Mughal emperors, reestablished Mughal power in India. At the time of Akbar's death (1605), the empire occupied a vast territory from Afghanistan E to Odisha (Orissa) and S to the Deccan Plateau. Mughal expansion continued under Akbar's son JahangirJahangir
or Jehangir
, 1569–1627, Mughal emperor of India (1605–27), son of Akbar. He continued his father's policy of expansion. The Rajput principality of Mewar (Udaipur) capitulated in 1614.
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 and under his grandson Shah JahanShah Jahan
or Shah Jehan
, 1592–1666, Mughal emperor of India (1628–58), son and successor of Jahangir. His full name was Khurram Shihab-ud-din Muhammad. He rebelled against his father in 1622 but was pardoned and succeeded to the throne in 1628.
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, who built many architectural marvels at Delhi and at Agra (including the Taj Mahal). AurangzebAurangzeb
or Aurangzib
, 1618–1707, Mughal emperor of India (1658–1707), son and successor of Shah Jahan. He served (1636–44, 1653–58) as viceroy of the Deccan but was constantly at odds with his father and his eldest brother, Dara Shikoh, the
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, expanded Mughal territory to its greatest extent, but at the same time the empire suffered the blows of major Hindu revolts. The most serious of these was the Maratha uprising. Weakened by the Maratha wars, dynastic struggles, and invasions by Persian and Afghan rulers, the empire came to an effective end as the British established control of India in the late 18th and early 19th cent. However, the British maintained puppet emperors until 1857. Many features of the Mughal administrative system were adopted by Great Britain in ruling India, but the most lasting achievements of the Mughals were in art and architecture (see Mughal art and architectureMughal art and architecture,
a characteristic Indo-Islamic-Persian style that flourished on the Indian subcontinent during the Mughal empire (1526–1857). This new style combined elements of Islamic art and architecture, which had been introduced to India during the Delhi
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).

Bibliography

See J. Sarkar, Fall of the Mughal Empire (2d ed., 4 vol., 1949–52, repr. 1972); A. L. Srivastava, The Mughal Empire, 1526–1803 (6th rev. ed. 1971); W. Hansen, Peacock Throne (1986).

References in periodicals archive ?
For insight into the intellectual training and career paths pursued by munshis, who constituted the foundation of the information and knowledge order of the Mughal empire, in chapter seven readers are provided with a critical synopsis of Munshi Nek Rai's autobiography entitled Tazkirat al-Safar wa Tuhfat al-Zafar (Account of Travel and the Gift of Success).
Kaplan also writes about the land-based Mughal Empire, which ruled India and adjacent territories in Central Asia from the 16th to the early 18th centuries, but his analysis highlights the enduring role of sea power for both economic and political advantage in the region.
Thatta contains several well-known mosques, including one built by Shah Jahan, the ruler of the Mughal empire in India in the 1600s.
Sindh is also home to historic tombs, graves and other remnants of the Mughal Empire, which during the height of its power in the 18th century ruled almost all of what is now India and Pakistan.
The technique itself originated in Persia and was further developed in India under the Mughal empire.
Also fit for a nawab is the Awadhi korma gosht, which means mutton curry from Awadh, an Indian province under the medieval Mughal empire.
The main purpose of the Company, to deprive the Mughal Emperor from using the Red Fort, was that it was a symbol of the past glory of the Mughal Empire.
This school of music has produced the most famous musicians, many of whom came to be patronised by the Royal family of Patiala after the disintegration of the Mughal Empire at Delhi in the 18th century," Rustam said.
Willie Mullins, trainer of Earls Quarter See above Eddie Harty, trainer of Mughal Empire "He's a very nice horse and my son rides, but the horse is only four and might get found out for lack of maturity.
It was abandoned as the capital of the Mughal Empire after just 10 years and is today a perfectly preserved 16th-century town.
For many centuries, the term referred to states that considered themselves successors to the Roman Empire, but later it came to be applied to non-European monarchies such as the Empire of China or the Mughal Empire.