Two notable critics of Darwinism as materialism were Jamal al-DIn al-Afghani and Muhammad 'Abduh
, both of whom Elshakry discusses at length.
It brings in other actors and links this scene in the Arab world with other parts of the Muslim world, although this attempt remains limited to a few individuals such as Jamal al-Din al-Afghani, who exerted considerable influence on Muhammad 'Abduh
and, through him, impacted other Egyptian thinkers of the time.
According to Ahmad Subhi Mansur, Muhammad 'Abduh
forwarded the idea of Quranism many years before he.
and Muhammad Iqbal helped shape his answers to the question.
Kaltner presents the views of early accommodationists to modernity, such as Ahmad Khan (1817-1898), an Indian who attempted to reconcile Islam with the scientific worldviews that were developing in Europe, and the Egyptian Muhammad 'Abduh
(1849-1905), who sought to stress the compatibility of Islam and science without supporting European colonialism.
Khalafallah and his professor al-Khuli relate themselves directly to the Islamic reformation movement initiated by Muhammad 'Abduh
(1855-1905), who himself invoked the enlightened Islamic tradition in theology and philosophy.
In many ways, his career is reminiscent of that of Shaykh Muhammad 'Abduh
One of the major figures in the modern period who addressed the problem of the "external" influence in the language of theology and qur'anic interpretation was Muhammad 'Abduh
, the late mufti of Egypt anda Qur'an commentator.
Those who believe in the dreams of all of these reformers, going back to Mohammad Ali Pasha, Muhammad 'Abduh
and Jamal Din Afghani, and even including Sacid Nursi of Turkey and Muhammad Iqbal, believing that we can gain that technological power and at the same time remain authentically within the Muslim worldview, are themselves dreaming the impossible.
Based on this, I used to criticize some intellectuals of the period who were in the habit of marshaling the ghosts of Muhammad 'Abduh
and al-Afghani in support of their views, as though nothing had transpired since the beginning of the Twentieth Century.
According to the nineteenth-century modernist exegete Muhammad 'Abduh
, the verse, "Were you to spend all that is on earth, you could not reconcile their hearts," means that it was only due to God's grace that the believers had become united in affectionate fellowship that was much stronger than any alliance based on common descent and shared nationality.
I was disappointed that Abu-Rabi' did not give more attention to Muhammad 'Abduh
, Jamal ad-Din al-Afghani, and Rashid Rida in providing a context for the Islamic revival.