Multicellular Organisms

Multicellular Organisms

 

animals and plants whose bodies consist of many cells and their derivatives (various forms of intercellular matter). A characteristic feature of multicellular organisms is the nonequivalence of the cells making up their bodies and the differentiation and segregation of the cells into groups of varying complexity (tissues, organs) that fulfill different functions throughout the organism. Multicellular organisms are characterized by individual development, or ontogeny, which generally begins (except in vegetative reproduction) with the division and differentiation of a single cell (sex cell, spore).

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It reviews the techniques and their uses in the study of living multicellular organisms, concentrating on small animal models of human diseases.
Objective: One of the modern challenges of cell biologists is to fully understand the mechanisms underlying cell lineage that takes place during the development of multicellular organisms.
London, June 2 (ANI): The world's deepest dwelling multicellular organisms have been identified as Halicephalobus mephisto and nematodes, non-segmented worms measuring up to .
The core is based on the principles of anhydrobiosis ("life without water"), a natural mechanism that allows multicellular organisms to survive extreme environments.
One hypothesis holds that multicellular organisms arose when single-celled organisms began living in groups to protect themselves against predators or to buffer against environmental extremes.
Cell-to-cell communication pathways coordinate cellular functions in multicellular organisms.
Caspase 8 plays a key role in apoptosis, a form of cellular suicide important for the development of all multicellular organisms, and in defense against viral infections.
Its role in the regulation and stabilization of cell cycle, thus preventing genome mutation, is observed among a wide variety of multicellular organisms, including humans, rodents, frogs and fish.
However, other research teams soon discovered that they could use the method to muffle protein production in virtually all multicellular organisms, including fungi, plants, and animals.
Professor Schofield said, "It's absolutely necessary for any multicellular organism to have a sufficient supply of oxygen to almost every cell and so the atmospheric rise in oxygen made it possible for multicellular organisms to exist.
Using an X-ray-scanning technique, scientists have taken a high-resolution peek inside fossilized embryos of some of the earliest multicellular organisms.
Since a generation is shorter for bacteria than for multicellular organisms, they genetically adjust more quickly to changes in the holobiont," said Rosenberg.

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