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(Multiple Input/Multiple Output) Pronounced "my-mo," it is the use of multiple transmitters and receivers (multiple antennas) on wireless devices for improved performance. When two transmitters and two or more receivers are used, two simultaneous data streams can be sent, which double the data rate. Multiple receivers alone allow greater distances between devices. For example, the IEEE 802.11n (Wi-Fi) wireless standard uses MIMO to increase speed to 100 Mbps and beyond, doubling at minimum the 802.11a and 11g rates. MIMO antennas are also used in WiMAX and LTE.

The M, S, I and O relate to the air, not the device. For example, multiple inputs (MI) means multiple transmitters send multiple data streams "into" the air. Multiple outputs (MO) means multiple receivers acquire multiple data streams "out of" the air (see illustration below). See 802.11n, antenna diversity, beamforming and HSPA.
ARCHITECTURE AND ADVANTAGES OFMULTIPLE ANTENNA TECHNOLOGIES                       Compared to Single                          Antenna (SISO)                          Technologies                          --------------      Transmit  Receive   DataType  Antennas  Antennas  Rate  Distance

 MIMO  Multiple  Multiple    >     >

 MISO  Multiple  Single      =     =

 SIMO  Single    Multiple    =     >

 M = Multiple   S = Single
 I = Input      O = Output

MIMO Wireless Router
In 2004, Belkin introduced the first 802.11n wireless router with multiple transmit/receive antennas (see 802.11n). (Image courtesy of Belkin Corporation, www.belkin.com)

MIMO Wireless Router
In 2004, Belkin introduced the first 802.11n wireless router with multiple transmit/receive antennas (see 802.11n). (Image courtesy of Belkin Corporation, www.belkin.com)
References in periodicals archive ?
The partnership follows the deployment of technologies, comprising 4x4 multiple-input multiple-output (4x4 MIMO), Massive MIMO and 256 quadrature amplitude modulation (256QAM).
MATLAB implementation of different aspects of the protocol is discussed next: modulation, orthogonal frequency-division multiplexing, multiple-input multiple-output technologies, models of link adaptation and system-level specifications.
Following introductory discussion of the Long Term Evolution Advanced standards and the basic principles of channel modeling and radio propagation, chapters detail the properties of the radio channel in main scenarios suitable for 4G and beyond wireless networks, including indoor and outdoor wireless environments, vehicles, multiple-input multiple-output channels, wideband channels, and channels for Body Area Networks.
The Netgear APs support 3x3 multiple-input multiple-output with three spatial streams to deliver up to 50% faster throughput speeds and improved service area coverage.
AirPort Extreme uses a technology called multiple-input multiple-output (MIMO) to transmit multiple data streams simultaneously.
Each part of wireless link--source coding and channel coding methods, radio wave propagation over wireless channels, and single-carrier and multicarrier modulation techniques--are addressed, as are recent standards like WiMAX, the fundamentals of all existing wireless digital systems developed on the basis of certain standards and protocols, and advanced topics like simulation methodology and software radio, turbo coding, spread spectrum communication, orthogonal frequency division multiplexing (OFDM), multiple-input multiple-output (MIMO) systems, and software radio.
LitePoint has unveiled the new IQmax multiple-input multiple-output (MIMO) system aimed at WiMAX devices with Wave 2 functionality.
Multiple-Input Multiple-Output (MIMO) addresses three key areas: interoperability between and among MIMO products; performance, including maximum throughput; and backward compatibility to PCs, phones, access points, and other legacy devices already in use.
In addition, TM9 allows eNodeBs to form UE-specific beams for single user multiple-input multiple-output (SU-MIMO) or multi-user multiple-input multiple-output (MU-MIMO), and to adjust beams based on changes in UE locations to significantly improve spectral efficiency.
Consolidating information from scattered sources, telecommunications specialists summarize in some detail several important enhancements in multiple-input multiple-output (MIMO) systems for fourth generation telecommunications (4G), including their evolution and future trends.
Canada) and Valeri Kontorovich (CINVESTAV, Mexico) describe multiple-input multiple-output (MIMO) systems as the most potent technique for increasing the capacity of wireless channels.

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