Munda


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Munda

 

a group of peoples in India (the Munda proper, Santal, Ho, Kharia, Korku, Birhor, Bhumij, Juang, Savara [Sora, Saora], Gadaba) who live mainly in southern Bihar and in Orissa and West Bengal. Total population, approximately 5.7 million (1971, estimate).

The Munda speak Munda languages; many also speak Hindi, Bengali, Oriya, and other languages of neighboring peoples. The Munda religion contains a mixture of animistic and Hindu beliefs. The Munda are the descendants of the ancient population of India, which was driven into the mountainous forested regions of central India by later arrivals—the Dravidians and, later, the Indo-Aryan peoples. Munda tribal groups differ greatly in their socioeconomic and ethnic development. Alongside developed groups (Munda proper, Santal), there are groups (Juang, Birhor) that have only recently begun to shift from hunting and gathering to primitive agriculture and that retain many survivals of the clan and tribal system. Most Munda engage in farming (rice, millet, beans, vegetables), although hunting and gathering continue to play an important role. Well-developed crafts include pottery-making, wickerwork, and woodworking. Some Munda work in the mining and metallurgical industries.

REFERENCE

Narody Iuzhnoi Azii Moscow, 1963.
References in periodicals archive ?
Later, the Mayar Jandol Police arrested the second accused and handed him over to Munda Police.
Though Munda would reckon himself to be the front- runner for the CM's post, the BJP president Das's statement that there is no dearth of leaders in BJP, raises the prospect of other CM hopefuls in the party.
Singh also complimented Munda, a seven-term legislator, for his "wealth of experience.
Munda is a member of the pro-Hindu Bharatiya Janata Party (Indian people's party), which has led a coalition government that has ruled Jharkhand since it was carved out of Bihar state in 2000.
Munda joined Keystone in 1987 as a structural Designated Engineering Representative and was promoted to Manager of Engineering in 1997.
Kennedy wisely sets aside the issue of authorship with the possibly pseudonymous Jane Anger, and the certainly pseudonymous Rachel Sowernam and Constantia Munda, arguing that whether female-authored or using female personae, the defenses "give women more rhetorical options for expressing just indignation at misogynistic thinking" (43).
The football scheme calls for six bowl games at three sites, one site each in Southern, Central and Northern California, section spokesman Art Munda said.
Although this is not quite the stand-alone resource its title might lead one to expect, it is a welcome addition to the slowly accumulating literature on the Munda languages.
When Cassandra joined us four years ago, we recognized her potential immediately," said Jim Munda, Keystone Helicopter's Vice President--Engineering.
The Dir Lower is divided in seven tehsils including Adenzai, Timergara, Balambat, Khall, Munda, Samar Bagh and Lal Qila Maidan.
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Study work has been worked out at the cost of million of rupees in respect of water reservoirs including Tank Zam dam, Garok dam, Ghabar dam, Papan dam, Paler dam, Nowling dam, Bara dam, Warand dam, Munda dam, Chiniot dam and others but the projects stand confined to file works.