Munich Pact

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Munich Pact,

1938. In the summer of 1938, Chancellor Hitler of Germany began openly to support the demands of Germans living in the Sudetenland (see SudetesSudetes
, Czech Sudety, Ger. Sudeten, mountain range, along the border of the Czech Republic and Poland, extending c.185 mi (300 km) between the Elbe and Oder rivers. It is continued on the W by the Erzgebirge and on the E by the Carpathians.
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) of CzechoslovakiaCzechoslovakia
, Czech Československo , former federal republic, 49,370 sq mi (127,869 sq km), in central Europe. On Jan. 1, 1993, the Czech Republic and the Slovak Republic (see Slovakia) became independent states and Czechoslovakia ceased to exist.
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 for an improved status. In September, Hitler demanded self-determination for the Sudetenland. Disorders broke out in Czechoslovakia, and martial law was proclaimed. Meetings between Hitler and Prime Minister Neville ChamberlainChamberlain, Neville
(Arthur Neville Chamberlain), 1869–1940, British statesman; son of Joseph Chamberlain and half-brother of Sir Austen Chamberlain. The first half of his career was spent in business and, after 1911, in the city government of Birmingham, of which he
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 of Great Britain, first at Berchtesgaden and then at Bad Godesberg, failed to achieve a satisfactory agreement. War seemed unavoidable. After appeals by President Franklin Delano Roosevelt and Benito Mussolini, a conference met at Munich (Sept. 29). Great Britain was represented by Chamberlain and Halifax, France by Edouard Daladier and Georges Bonnet, Italy by Mussolini and Galeazzo Ciano, Germany by Hitler and Ribbentrop. Neither Czechoslovakia nor the Soviet Union, which had offered aid to the threatened country under the terms of a 1935 treaty, was invited to the conference. England and France quickly surrendered to Hitler's demands, and the Munich Pact was signed Sept. 30 (but dated Sept. 29). It permitted immediate occupation by Germany of the Sudetenland, but also provided for plebiscites, which were never carried out. France and Britain guaranteed the new Czechoslovak boundaries. When Chamberlain arrived in London, he announced that he had secured "peace in our time." Abandoned by its allies, Czechoslovakia gave in to the terms, and President Beneš, the target of Hitler's most venomous attacks, resigned. Poland and Hungary, for whose minorities promises had been made at Munich, were allowed to seize, respectively, the TeschenTeschen
, Czech Tĕšín, Pol. Cieszyn, former principality (c.850 sq mi/2,200 sq km), now divided between the Czech Republic and Poland. Teschen was its chief town.
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 district and parts of SlovakiaSlovakia
or the Slovak Republic,
Slovak Slovensko , republic (2005 est. pop. 5,431,000), 18,917 sq mi (48,995 sq km), central Europe. It is bordered by the Czech Republic in the west, by Austria in the southwest, by Hungary in the south, by Ukraine in the east,
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. The Munich Pact became a symbol of appeasement and shook the confidence of Eastern Europeans in the good faith of the Western democracies. World War II began about one year after its signing.


See J. W. Wheeler-Bennett, Munich: Prologue to Tragedy (1948, repr. 1966); studies by K. Eubank (1963), F. L. Loewenheim, ed. (1965), and D. E. Lee, ed. (1970).

References in periodicals archive ?
London, Paris, and Rome justified the signing of the Munich Agreement by their wish to preserve the European peace which Nazi dictator Adolf Hitler was threatening to undermine, in case he is not allowed to expand to territories he claimed were inhabited by Germans.
Bush and his cheerleaders, invoking the Munich Agreement at every opportunity, regarded the terrorist attacks of September 11 2001 as a call to arms.
Using recently discovered archival material, this work offers month to month chapters covering key events of the year the Third Reich came of age, from the scandals that led to the replacement of key military leaders in January 1938, through the Munich Agreement of September and the first kindertransport in December.
Putin connects two events that triggered the Second World War, the Munich Agreement of 1938 and the Molotov Ribbentrop Pact of 1939, in one causal construction.
Looking through the copies of the Evening Gazette from the time of the Munich Agreement in 1938 it was obvious that we were preparing for a German assault.
Just as in an earlier time, and far removed from Swat, a British prime minister had assured his people that the Munich agreement with Hitler would ensure "peace in our time".
29, 1938 Munich Agreement signed by Germany, France, Britain and Italy -- created a new analogy.
Czech forces were ordered not to resist when German troops occupied what was left of their lands, following the Munich agreement a year before in 1938.
The classic paradigm for his faulty logic is the 1938 Munich Agreement, which rendered Hitler unstoppable except by a war which had to be fought from a weakened position minus a secure Czechoslovak ally and its excellent army, which were gambled away on a Waskow-like negotiating binge.
It's a crime he didn't get the Nobel Peace Prize for 1938, which he might have shared with Herr Hitler for the Munich Agreement, which brought "peace" to Czechoslovakia's Sudetenland, the "far away country" of that moment.
He referred to the Munich Agreement that permitted Germany to annex the Sudeten area of Czechoslovakia, which contained approximately 3 million ethnic Germans.
Afterwards in 1938 the major countries of the West brokered a phony peace agreement (a prologue to the infamous Munich agreement between Hitler and British Prime Minister Neville Chamberlain later the same year) that called for removal of all foreign forces from the fighting in Spain.