Premchand

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Premchand

 

(pen name of Dhanpat Rai Shrivastava). Born July 31, 1880, in Lamati, near Benares; died Oct. 8, 1936, in Benares. Indian writer and publicist writing in Urdu and Hindi.

Premchand worked as a teacher and school inspector. His literary work was influenced by the Indian national liberation movement. His first short-story collection, Love For the Homeland (1909), was burned by the British authorities. The political awakening of the masses and their struggle for social rights and national liberation are themes of Premchand’s novels The Abode of Love (1922), Arena (1925; Russian translation, 1967), The Battlefield (1932; Russian translation, 1958), and The Sacrificial Cow (1936; Russian translation, 1956) and of his collections Seven Lotuses (1917) and Military Road (1932). Premchand condemned colonial and feudal despotism, medieval backwardness, and religious fanaticism. His sharp criticism of colonialism incurred persecution from the authorities.

Premchand’s works combine current political and social problems with perceptive characterization. A democratic writer, he regarded the common people as the chief support of society, championed humanist ideals, and praised the successes of socialist construction in the USSR. Premchand was the founder of critical realism in Urdu and Hindi literature. His publicistic writings and his journals Hans (1930–36) and Jagaran (1932–34) helped strengthen realistic and democratic literature in India. He was also a founder of the Progressive Writers’ Association of India (1936), which had an important influence on Indian literatures.

WORKS

Manasarovara, vols. 1–8. Benares, 1953–56.
Gupta dhana, vols. 1–2. Allahabad, 1962.
Vividha prasanga, vols. 1–3. Allahabad, 1962.
In Russian translation:
Kolodets tkhakura. Moscow, 1955.
Zmeinyi kamen’ Moscow, 1957.
Rasskazy; Nirmala. Moscow, 1958.
Rastrata. Moscow, 1961.
Ratnyi put’: Rasskazy. Moscow, 1969.

REFERENCES

Balin, V. Premchand-novellist. Leningrad, 1973.
Premchand: Biobibliografich. ukazatel’. Moscow, 1962.
Rajeshvar Guru. Premacand: Ek adhyayan. Bhopal, 1958.
Qamar Ra’is. Premacand ka tankidi mutali ba haithiyat navil nigar. Aligarh, 1959.
Rai Amrit. Premacanda: Kalam ka sipahi. Allahabad, 1962.
Gopal, Madan. Munshi Premchand: A Literary Biography. New York, 1964.

V. I. BALIN

References in periodicals archive ?
The three exceptions are The Chess Players (1977) and Sadgati ("The Deliverance," 1981), based on two short stories by the Hindi writer Munshi Premchand (1880-1936), and An Enemy of the People (1989), an adaptation of the 1882 play by Ibsen (Ray's only non-Indian source of inspiration).
Yadav was also the editor of the famous "Hans" magazine, which was originally launched by the legendary writer, Munshi Premchand.
He was also interested in Urdu language and literature, particularly the realistic early novels of Munshi Premchand.
Yadav was also the editor of the famous 'Hans' magazine, which was originally launched by the legendary writer, Munshi Premchand.
The collection includes classics such as The Jungle Book by Rudyard Kipling, The Shroud by Munshi Premchand, The Quilt by Ismat Chughtai and the haunting Toba Tek Singh by Saadat Hasan Manto -- books that are ideal for anytime reading.