Having studied insurgency in Africa in their work at the African Leadership Centre in Nairobi, Dr Funmi Olonisakin of King's College, London and Dr Godwin Murunga of Nairobi University write in one of their papers: African societies are crying out for a secure environment and a security response that is not held hostage by their ruling elite and external allies.
Olonisakin and Murunga noted: "For a start, the key dangers of Boko Haram in Nigeria and al-Shabaab in Kenya do not rest in what damage they inflict to the current regimes.
The first, as advanced by Mazrui (cited in Khapoya, 2012:101103), concerns the need to gather knowledge about the unknown and the exotic; hence explorations and the eventual invention of the concept of The Dark Continent in reference to Africa (Mudimbe 1988; Murunga 2008; Bradley 2006).
This notion, as Murunga (2008:45) argues, was 'never a self-evident fact'; it was actually imagined into existence by those experts on Africa whose works swell libraries around the world.
Murunga (2008:46), for instance, views African Studies as "an industry in the United States--a child of the American empire nurtured by foundations and government grants".
The President was above the law; he appointed and fired the cabinet, top civil servants, and the provincial administration at will, reigned over the bureaucracy, and determined judicial tenure and the parliamentary calendar' (Nasong'o and Murunga, 2007: 269).
As Amutabi and Gimonde (cited in Nasong'o and Murunga, 2007: 269) reveal, Kenyatta (and Moi after him) controlled the armed forces, the police, the civil service, (and) the provincial administration.
Edwin Gimode, "The Role of the Police in Kenya's Democratisation Process," in Godwin Murunga
and Shadrack Nasongo, Eds.
, a self-employed community health worker in Nairobi's Gomongo slum, said she frequently gives patients injections in their homes and assists in home births, but rarely has proper safety equipment including gloves.
He then visited a Central Reserve Police Force (CRPF) camp in the Murunga
forest, about 30 km from the district town.
congratulated NZNO members for achieving a collective voice that integrated the principles of the Treaty of Waitangi.
Koutra, Tangie Nsoh Fonchingong, Cynthia Sims, Terrence Scott and Joseph Calvin Gagnon, Godwin Murunga
and Shadrack Wanjala Nasong'o, E.