Muscle Tissue

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Related to Muscle Tissue: skeletal muscle tissue

Muscle Tissue


the tissue constituting the bulk of the mass of muscles and accounting for the contractile function of muscles. The following types are distinguished: striated (skeletal and heart), smooth, and doubly oblique striated.

Almost all skeletal muscle tissue in vertebrates develops from myotomes, the paired metameric rudiments of the body musculature. Myoblasts, which are mononuclear cells, divide rapidly in ontogenesis and upon fusing together give rise to bundles, which are then transformed into differentiated muscle fibers, the main structural element of striated muscle. The striation of the fibers is due to the alternation of numerous contractile strands known as myofibrils, which are structures differing in physico-chemical and optical properties.

Smooth muscle tissues of the skin, of walls of organs along the gastrointestinal and urogenital tracts, and of walls of blood vessels develop from mesenchymal cells. The smooth muscle cells of salivary, sweat, and mammary glands derive from the ectoderm. All smooth muscle cells are mononuclear and spindle-shaped.

Muscle tissue with doubly oblique striation is comparatively rare. It is found in some worms and in the obturator muscles of bivalve mollusks. Striation appears at an acute angle (10° to 15°) to the longitudinal axis of the muscle fiber where the dark and light disks of adjacent myofibrils coincide with some regular displacement. This muscle tissue is characterized by slow contraction and the ability to remain contracted over many hours with only a slight loss of energy.

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Dr Georgina Ellison, the first author of the paper and Professor Bernardo Nadal-Ginard, the study's corresponding author, both from the Centre of Human and Aerospace Physiological Sciences and the Centre for Stem Cells and Regenerative Medicine at King's, said that in a healthy heart the quantity of cardiac stem cells is sufficient to repair muscle tissue in the heart.
Elizabeth Townsend, PhD, of Columbia University and her colleagues studied the effects of 6-gingerol, 8-gingerol and 6-shogoal in human airway smooth muscle tissue samples treated with acetylcholine, a neurotransmitter that causes bronchoconstriction.
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It described three basic human body types: the endomorph, characterized by a preponderance of body fat; the mesomorph, marked by a well-developed musculature; and the ectomorph, distinguished by a lack of either much fat or muscle tissue - in other words, lean and slightly muscular.
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