Musculoskeletal System

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musculoskeletal system

[¦məs·kyə·lō′skel·ə·təl ‚sis·təm]
(anatomy)
The muscular and skeletal elements of vertebrates, considered as a functional unit.

Musculoskeletal System

 

a single complex that consists of bones, joints, ligaments, muscles, and the nerves that innervate these parts. In humans and animals the musculoskeletal system supports the body, controls locomotion, and provides for movement of the individual parts and organs, for example, the head and the extremities.

The coordination of function in the locomotor system is determined during embryogenesis, when the sclerotomes—from which the skeletal system develops—are laid down parallel to the myotomes—from which the muscles develop. The fixed portion of the musculoskeletal system is the skeleton—the sturdy foundation of the body, which also protects the internal organs from a number of mechanical influences, such as the impact of a blow.

To the bones of the skeleton are attached the striated, or skeletal, muscles, which are innervated and controlled by nerve endings of nerves that originate in the central nervous system (seeMOTOR ANALYZER).

Muscles constitute the active part of the musculoskeletal system. By means of the coordinated activity of the entire musculature of the body, many different types of movement can be effected. Active tensing of muscles is required to support the body while standing and sitting; to effect the various forms of locomotion, such as walking, running, swimming, crawling, and jumping; and to bring about movement in the individual parts of the body. Illnesses of or injuries to any part of the musculoskeletal system can disturb the motion and form of the entire body; the whole musculoskeletal system can suffer, and often the internal organs are harmed as well. For example, when a significant portion of one extremity is lost, curvature of the spine can develop, after which the thorax becomes deformed; these changes can then precipitate circulatory disturbances and disorders in the respiratory organs.

M. A. KON

References in periodicals archive ?
The examination of the musculo-skeletal system by a sound, systematic approach, will elicit whether or not treatment of a physical nature is needed, that is, patient selection is the key to safe and effective management of any case.
Description : Pharmaceutical products, Medicinal products for the alimentary tract and metabolism, Medicinal products for the blood, blood-forming organs and the cardiovascular system, Medicinal products for dermatology and the musculo-skeletal system, Medicinal products for the genitourinary system and hormones, General anti-infectives for systemic use, vaccines, antineoplastic and immunodulating agents, Systemic hormonal preparations, excl.
BioTime plans to develop therapeutic products in China for the treatment of ophthalmologic, skin, musculo-skeletal system and hematologic diseases, including the targeting of genetically modified stem cells to tumors as a novel means of treating currently incurable forms of cancer through its subsidiary BioTime Asia, Limited.
I am hugely interested in working to further advance the sophistication of the field of regenerative medicine where it is now possible to parse with greater purity the diverse embryonic progenitors to the musculo-skeletal system," said Dr.
BioTime also plans to develop, through its subsidiary, BioTime Asia, Limited, therapeutic products in China for the treatment of ophthalmologic, skin, musculo-skeletal system and hematologic diseases, including the targeting of genetically modified stem cells to tumors as a novel means of treating currently incurable forms of cancer.
The patent design triggers the body to correct improper posture, by re-educating and re-engineering the musculo-skeletal system surrounding the shoulder and spine.
Walking requires energy, movement control and support and places demands on multiple organ systems, including the heart, lungs, circulatory, nervous and musculo-skeletal systems," the study's authors wrote.