Mustafa Kemal Atatürk

(redirected from Mustafa Kamal Ataturk)

Atatürk, Mustafa Kemal

 

Born 1881, in Salonika; died Nov. 10, 1938, in Istanbul. Founder and first president (1923–38) of the Turkish Republic. The Great Turkish National Assembly gave him the surname Atatürk (literally, father of the Turks) in 1934, when surnames were introduced.

Atatürk was born into the family of a timber merchant, a former customs clerk. He received a secondary military education in Salonika and Monastir (Bitola), and a higher education in Istanbul, where he graduated from the General Staff Academy in January 1905. He participated in the Young Turks movement. However, soon after the Young Turks revolution of 1908, he withdrew from the Committee of Union and Progress. He fought at the front in the Turko-Italian War of 1911–12, in the Second Balkan War in 1913, and in World War I (1914–18). In 1916 he was promoted to the rank of general and received the title of pasha. In 1919 he led a national liberation movement in Anatolia. Under Atatürk’s leadership, a congress of the bourgeois-revolutionary Leagues for the Defense of Rights was held in Erzurum and Sivas in 1919, and on Apr. 23, 1920, the Great Turkish National Assembly was formed in Ankara and declared itself the supreme governing body. As president of the assembly and after September 1921 as supreme commander in chief as well, Atatürk led the armed forces in the national liberation war against the Anglo-Greek intervention. As a result of victory in the battles at the Sakarya River (Aug. 23-Sept. 13, 1921), the assembly conferred on him the rank of marshal and the title of ghazi. Under the command of Atatürk, the Turkish Army defeated the interventionists in 1922.

On Atatürk’s initiative, the sultanate was abolished on Nov. 1, 1922, and on Oct. 29, 1923, Turkey was declared a republic. The caliphate was eliminated on Mar. 3, 1924, and a number of progressive reforms of a bourgeois and national character were introduced in the areas of government and administrative structure, justice, culture, and mode of life. The People’s Party (after 1924, the Republican People’s Party), which Atatürk established in 1923 on the base of the Leagues for the Defense of Rights and of which Atatürk became lifetime chairman, opposed the reactionary attempts of feudal-clerical and comprador circles. In the area of foreign affairs, Atatürk aspired to maintain a friendly relationship between Turkey and Soviet Russia, which had rendered disinterested aid to the Turkish people in the years of their struggle against the imperialists and later during the development of their national economy.

WORKS

Nutuk, vols. i-3. Istanbul, 1934. (Russian edition: Put’ novoi Turtsii, vols. 1–4. Moscow, 1929–34.)
Atatürk’ ün söylev ve demeçleri, [vols.] 1–3. Ankara, 1945–59. (Russian abridged edition: Izbrannye rechi i vystupleniia.Edited and with an introduction by A. F. Miller. Moscow, 1966.)

V. I. SHPIL’KOVA

References in periodicals archive ?
He also praised the founder of modern Turkey, Mustafa Kamal Ataturk who had demonstrated courageous leadership in the fight against British imperialism and said Quaid-i-Azam Mohammad Ali Jinnah, on learning about the death of Ataturk in 1938, had declared a day of national mourning for the Muslims of the South Asian sub-Continent.
He also praised the founder of modern Turkey, Mustafa Kamal Ataturk who had demonstrated courageous leadership in the fight against British imperialism and he said that Quaid-i-Azam Mohammad Ali Jinnah, on learning about the death of Ataturk in 1938, had declared a day of national mourning for the Muslims of the South Asian sub-Continent.
From requiring education in the old Ottoman script to constructing a giant palace, it seems president Erdogan is dragging Turkey back to Ottoman roots that Mustafa Kamal Ataturk let go of during his aggressive modernization efforts nearly one hundred years ago.
Both Hagia Sofia and the Monastery of Studios were turned into museums after the founding of modern Turkey by Mustafa Kamal Ataturk in 1923.
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Referring to the portraits of Father of the Nation Quaid-e-Azam Muhammad Ali Jinnah and Founder of modern Turkey Mustafa Kamal Ataturk installed at Wadoodia Hall, he said that these are the ample proof that show that how much Pakistan and Turkey are closer with each other.
Most importantly he makes the point that modern Turks have now reconciled themselves with the Ottoman legacy; that the Turkish republic that was set up by Mustafa Kamal Ataturk is an extension of the rich and great Ottoman past.
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Hardline secularists claiming to be the inheritors of the line laid down by Mustafa Kamal Ataturk (1881-1938), founder of the Turkish republic, and religious conservatives have struggled for power and influence for decades.
In 1924, Mustafa Kamal Ataturk abolished the Caliphate, and established in Turkey an anti-religious political system in its place, described as laique (secular).
Earlier, ambassador Sohail Mahmood along with officers of Pakistan Embassy visited the Mausoleum of Mustafa Kamal Ataturk to pay homage to Turkey's first president and the great leader of its war of independence.
To pay tribute to the great contribution of Turkey's founding leader Mustafa Kamal Ataturk, whom he greatly admired, the founder of Pakistan, Quaid-e-Azam Mohammad Ali Jinnah, announced Day of National Mourning, on behalf of All India Muslim League, on the sad demise of Ataturk in 1938", he informed.