Mustafa Kemal Atatürk

(redirected from Mustapha Kemal)

Atatürk, Mustafa Kemal

 

Born 1881, in Salonika; died Nov. 10, 1938, in Istanbul. Founder and first president (1923–38) of the Turkish Republic. The Great Turkish National Assembly gave him the surname Atatürk (literally, father of the Turks) in 1934, when surnames were introduced.

Atatürk was born into the family of a timber merchant, a former customs clerk. He received a secondary military education in Salonika and Monastir (Bitola), and a higher education in Istanbul, where he graduated from the General Staff Academy in January 1905. He participated in the Young Turks movement. However, soon after the Young Turks revolution of 1908, he withdrew from the Committee of Union and Progress. He fought at the front in the Turko-Italian War of 1911–12, in the Second Balkan War in 1913, and in World War I (1914–18). In 1916 he was promoted to the rank of general and received the title of pasha. In 1919 he led a national liberation movement in Anatolia. Under Atatürk’s leadership, a congress of the bourgeois-revolutionary Leagues for the Defense of Rights was held in Erzurum and Sivas in 1919, and on Apr. 23, 1920, the Great Turkish National Assembly was formed in Ankara and declared itself the supreme governing body. As president of the assembly and after September 1921 as supreme commander in chief as well, Atatürk led the armed forces in the national liberation war against the Anglo-Greek intervention. As a result of victory in the battles at the Sakarya River (Aug. 23-Sept. 13, 1921), the assembly conferred on him the rank of marshal and the title of ghazi. Under the command of Atatürk, the Turkish Army defeated the interventionists in 1922.

On Atatürk’s initiative, the sultanate was abolished on Nov. 1, 1922, and on Oct. 29, 1923, Turkey was declared a republic. The caliphate was eliminated on Mar. 3, 1924, and a number of progressive reforms of a bourgeois and national character were introduced in the areas of government and administrative structure, justice, culture, and mode of life. The People’s Party (after 1924, the Republican People’s Party), which Atatürk established in 1923 on the base of the Leagues for the Defense of Rights and of which Atatürk became lifetime chairman, opposed the reactionary attempts of feudal-clerical and comprador circles. In the area of foreign affairs, Atatürk aspired to maintain a friendly relationship between Turkey and Soviet Russia, which had rendered disinterested aid to the Turkish people in the years of their struggle against the imperialists and later during the development of their national economy.

WORKS

Nutuk, vols. i-3. Istanbul, 1934. (Russian edition: Put’ novoi Turtsii, vols. 1–4. Moscow, 1929–34.)
Atatürk’ ün söylev ve demeçleri, [vols.] 1–3. Ankara, 1945–59. (Russian abridged edition: Izbrannye rechi i vystupleniia.Edited and with an introduction by A. F. Miller. Moscow, 1966.)

V. I. SHPIL’KOVA

References in periodicals archive ?
Pour rappel historique, la tradition des derviches tourneurs (interdite a la venue de Mustapha Kemal Attaturk au pouvoir a Istanbul, avant d'etre retablie) s'est repandue dans tous les pays voisins de la Turquie, comme la Syrie, la Macedoine, la Bosnie et l'Egypte.
But this did not happen as Mustapha Kemal Ataturk planned.
Therefore, in 1923, the founder of the new Turkish nation, Mustapha Kemal Ataturk, decided to officially encourage drinking tea as an alternative to drinking coffee.
Mustapha Kemal had the Turks place their trenches as close to the ANZAC trenches as possible, to thwart the use of naval bombardment for fear of hitting their own troops and also to negate the possibility of the ANZACs using gas (which was never done).
Yet one may begin to question whether the Turkish example of strict "laicite," a word borrowed from the French in order to underline the strict separation of church and state as wished for by the founder of modern day Turkey, Mustapha Kemal Ataturk, is about to become a memory of a short-lived dream, if Turkey will chose instead to emulate its neighbour, Iran.
Since Mustapha Kemal served at a distance from the area where the massacres of Armenians occurred, he had "clean hands," something a number of potential rivals did not.
From the ruins of the Ottoman Empire, Mustapha Kemal Ataturk's greatest, and most controversial, legacy to the young Turkish nation, which he defended and put together, was secularism, which spelt a decisive divorce between Islam as a political religion and the modern, westward looking state in Asia Minor.
In Turkey people have had Mustapha Kemal as their father, Ataturk, for seven decades.
In 1923, Mustapha Kemal outlawed all medals awarded since Turkey's War of Independence.
Also on this day: 1521: Cortes, leading hisSpanish troops, took Tenochtitlan (Mexico City); 1704: The French Army was defeated at Blenheim by the Austrian and the English; 1814: Cape of Good Hope province was ceded to Britain by the Dutch and it became a British colony; 1868: Earthquakes in Peru and Ecuador destroyed four cities and killed over 25,000 people; 1876: The first performance of Wagner's Der Ring des Nibelungen was staged at Bayreuth; 1923: Mustapha Kemal Ataturk was elected president of Turkey; 1960: The Central African Republic became independent; 1972: The last American troops left Vietnam.
In seeking to establish the type of regional influence that Turks have not had since the time Mustapha Kemal Ataturk founded the Republic of Turkey, Erdogan has fallen prey to some of the Ottoman regime's hubris.
Ataturk, then Colonel Mustapha Kemal, came across the fleeing troops and when told they had no more ammunition, he told them to fix bayonets and lie down.