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Keywords: Cell-directed mutagenesis; Darwinism; gene; directed panspermia; evolutionary tree; mutationism, natural selection; neutral theory; organic evolution; origin of life; phyletic gradualism; neo-Darwinism; species; punctuated equilibrium; synthetic theory; genome; biochip; Darwinism; last universal common ancestor; organic evolution; ruh; natural computer biosystem; natural software engineering; synthetic theory; phylogenetic software differentiation; primordial biochip; transposable elements; programmed organic evolution.
In the Netherlands, Hugo de Vries advanced a new evolutionary theory known as mutationism which essentially rejected natural selection as a major evolutionary process.
Mutationism was opposed by many naturalists, particularly biometricians like Briton Karl Pearson who defended Darwinian natural selection as the major cause of evolution.