Influenced by Mutazilites
, the Karaites insisted on belief in monotheism.
Rational theology as presented by the Mutazilites
, and Rational Philosophy presented by Averreos later, could be considered solid ground for tolerance.
Some Sunni legal theorists and Mutazilites
argued that this certainty was actually "discursive" (nazari) or "acquired" (muktasab) in nature--it was still total certainty, but only after some consideration of the reports did this inhere in the mind of the receiver.
19) Although the mutakallimun, both Mutazilites
and Asharites, were severe critics of the philosophers, they were, in turn, themselves regarded as too rational and were bitterly opposed by more conservative Muslims, both from the Sunni and Shiite sides.
17) It may be surmised that the eventual triumph of Ash'arism (including Maturdism and Tahawism, or Sunnism in general), was due to its creative intellectual versatility in co-opting and integrating both the rationalism of the Mutazilites
and the falasifah and the traditionalism of the Hanbalites into its own "synthetic" theological framework18 which "gave both naql and 'aql their due, and took a middle course between the doctrines of the opposing sects.
The Zaidis can be said to follow a path close to that of the Mutazilites
, while in the branches or derivative institutions of the law they apply the jurisprudence of Abu Hanifah, the founder of one of the four Sunni schools of law.
Some may be acquainted with other Islamic groups, such as the Shiites, Sunnis, Kharijites, Mutazilites
, and Baha'is.
denied orthodoxy's claim that the Quran had always existed and that it was based on eternal and immutable laws.
Bennabi's self-proclaimed disciple, Nourredine Boukrouh, founder of the Parti du Renouveau Algerien (1989) and editor of some of his works argues that two groups emerged from those who attended Bennabi's lectures: the rationalists, whom he identifies with the Mutazilites
, and those opposed to this type of rational thinking, such as Mahfoud Nahnah, the Haddam brothers (Anwar and Lahbabi), Mohammed Boudjelkha, and Mustapha Brahimi (who eventually became members of the Islamic Salvation Front [FIS] when it was founded in 1989).
To define motion, as the Mutazilites
claimed (14), as an agent through which things move is to posit it as an accidental property of things--the very view against which Sadra proposes his substantial motion.
For the two major protagonists of the second type, says Fakhry, are the Mutazilites
and the Asarites, and one wonders whether Fakhry would claim that the Mutazilites
had not "received the impact of Greek philosophy and Islamic theology.
are cited as having been the founders of Islamic rationalism (pp.