46) This was an extensive outline of muttonbirding and began by explaining that, 'Before we go on the mutton bird island we make baskets and get kelp bags'.
Nana P's account of muttonbirding, written as it was at school, illustrates the continuation of a phenomenon observed by Canon James Stack during a visit to the Native School at The Neck in 1877 where he encountered an essay written about muttonbirding, presumably in English, by one of its pupils.
But we do know this: had she not wanted to draw attention to her Maori heritage and non-European lifeways during her time at secondary school, she would not have written about muttonbirding nor would she have been known as Mouru.
63) In light of the articles on muttonbirding examined in this essay though, I suggest that we might see that movement as having antecedents that are both southern and almost a century older.
The descriptions of muttonbirding offered by Tini, Irawaru and Nana P can, I think, be thought of as examples of travel writing.
Muttonbirding therefore provided fair-skinned Kai Tahu with a means to reinforce their Kai Tahu lineage, highlight enduring tribal lifeways, and assert their continued relevance.
One consequence of this were Kai Tahu authored articles about muttonbirds and muttonbirding in English for public consumption from the 1900s onwards.