recruit" bacterial mutualists
to the phyllosphere, as they do
The role of mycorrhizal symbiosis in plant invasions has been evaluated mainly in the light of Resistance Hypothesis (indirect effect of not having appropriate mutualists
is that the invader is repelled from areas) [Mack, 1996], Enhanced Mutualisms Hypothesis (invasion at a biogeographical scale is facilitated by mutualists
with strong beneficial effects) [Reinhart & Callaway, 2006], Mutualisms Hypothesis [Richardson et al.
As a Mutualist
, Tucker rigorously embraced free markets and voluntary exchange void of all government privilege and regulation.
It is well documented that rodents, and rodent nests, have arthropod ectoparasites that are suitable pseudoscorpion prey, and thus the transformation from commensal to mutualist
is uneventful and evolutionarily rather simple to achieve.
Because the mutualists
had been discredited, comparatively small numbers of anarchist militants were able to move into an organizational vacuum.
These microbial mutualists
have the ability to adapt rapidly to changing environments, and could potentially play a key role in the local adaptation of their host, especially in the context of rapid environmental changes imposed by human activities.
Thus, role of ECM fungi assumes significance in forest restoration because these mutualists
have the ability to provide buffering capacity to plant species against various environmental stresses (Malajczuk et al.
Put simply, when a host becomes rare, its parasites and mutualists
have two choices: jump ship to another host or go extinct.
Dale describes secondary endosymbionts as "learning to become mutualists
," partners that both help and gain from the insect.
The naturalization of a Mesoamerican orchid bee, Euglossa viridissima Friese, in Florida, where no perfume orchids occur except for uncommon ornamentals, led to the understanding that orchid bees don't need their orchid mutualists
(Pemberton & Wheeler, 2006).
Passiflora leaves and petioles bear extrafloral nectaries that are well known for their support of ant bodyguards and other mutualists
that benefit the plants (Smiley 1985; Apple & Feener 2001).
Extending along a dynamic continuum from antagonistic to cooperative and often involving elements of both antagonism and mutualism, symbioses involve pathogens, commensals, and mutualists
interacting in myriad ways over the evolutionary history of the involved "partners.