Mutualists


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Mutualists

 

a name given to a number of petit bourgeois social-reformist tendencies in the first half of the 19th century.

The term was first used in Lyon, France, where a mutual assistance union of master weavers, the Association of Mutualists, was founded in 1828. The mutualists denied the necessity of class struggle and revolution and affirmed that the means of resolving the social question lay in the creation of societies of mutual assistance, such as producers’ and consumers’ cooperatives. The theory reached its highest development in the works of P. J. Proudhon. During the 1860’s, the term “mutualists” was applied to the right-wing Proudhonists who entered the French sections of the First International.

References in periodicals archive ?
By increasing host growth rates and/or survivorship, mutualists such as Mithrax facilitate the production and maintenance of biogenic structure and may therefore function as keystone species within this assemblage of host-associated organisms.
In addition, research into the interspecific competitive interactions between naturally occurring obligate mutualists and A.
Induced responses in plants that feed and house mutualist defenders (e.
A third alternative is also possible; as mutualists that receive most of their energy from the plants with which they form intimate associations, ectomycorrhizal fungi may be buffered against the environmental extremes experienced by their plant associates.
This pattern is sometimes found empirically when densities of mutualists vary (e.
bicornis ants as mutualists is met through at least two distinct behaviors: stem-borer attack and spore foraging.
An unfertilized control was included to examine whether the applied nutrient solution masks effects of mutualists, such as mycorrhizal fungi.
In some grasses, endophytes, especially clavicipitaceous fungi, are know to produce alkaloidal mycotoxins that deter, reduce growth and fecundity, or kill invertebrate and vertebrate herbivores (Clay 1992, Breen 1994) and thus are thought to be plant mutualists (Cheplick and Clay 1988, Clay 1990, 1992, Clay et al.
Endophytic fungi in some agricultural grasses produce alkaloidal mycotoxins that deter, reduce growth and fecundity, or kill invertebrate and vertebrate herbivores (Clay 1992, Breen 1994) and thus are thought to be plant mutualists (Cheplick and Clay 1988, Clay 1990, 1992, Clay et al.
1980) that enemies of herbivores are mutualists of plants, there have been relatively few studies investigating the effects of predators on plants in terrestrial systems.
The event was also marked by the Palestinian participation through the presence of the Vice-President of the General Union of Palestinian Farmers and Mutualists who said to the press that their participation had been encouraged by the theme chosen for the festival, namely to olive tree, which sums up the meanings of the Palestinians' deep-rootedness in their land, which he described as a symbol of determination and challenge.
When interspecific competition was relative weak or absent, aggregation of initial plants may release a higher concentration chemical signal attracting mutualists and altering their metabolism or impacting their soil community mutualists (Morris et al.