Mutualists


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Related to Mutualists: mutualistic symbiosis, Symbiotic Relationships

Mutualists

 

a name given to a number of petit bourgeois social-reformist tendencies in the first half of the 19th century.

The term was first used in Lyon, France, where a mutual assistance union of master weavers, the Association of Mutualists, was founded in 1828. The mutualists denied the necessity of class struggle and revolution and affirmed that the means of resolving the social question lay in the creation of societies of mutual assistance, such as producers’ and consumers’ cooperatives. The theory reached its highest development in the works of P. J. Proudhon. During the 1860’s, the term “mutualists” was applied to the right-wing Proudhonists who entered the French sections of the First International.

References in periodicals archive ?
The role of mycorrhizal symbiosis in plant invasions has been evaluated mainly in the light of Resistance Hypothesis (indirect effect of not having appropriate mutualists is that the invader is repelled from areas) [Mack, 1996], Enhanced Mutualisms Hypothesis (invasion at a biogeographical scale is facilitated by mutualists with strong beneficial effects) [Reinhart & Callaway, 2006], Mutualisms Hypothesis [Richardson et al.
As a Mutualist, Tucker rigorously embraced free markets and voluntary exchange void of all government privilege and regulation.
It is well documented that rodents, and rodent nests, have arthropod ectoparasites that are suitable pseudoscorpion prey, and thus the transformation from commensal to mutualist is uneventful and evolutionarily rather simple to achieve.
Because the mutualists had been discredited, comparatively small numbers of anarchist militants were able to move into an organizational vacuum.
These microbial mutualists have the ability to adapt rapidly to changing environments, and could potentially play a key role in the local adaptation of their host, especially in the context of rapid environmental changes imposed by human activities.
Thus, role of ECM fungi assumes significance in forest restoration because these mutualists have the ability to provide buffering capacity to plant species against various environmental stresses (Malajczuk et al.
Put simply, when a host becomes rare, its parasites and mutualists have two choices: jump ship to another host or go extinct.
Dale describes secondary endosymbionts as "learning to become mutualists," partners that both help and gain from the insect.
The naturalization of a Mesoamerican orchid bee, Euglossa viridissima Friese, in Florida, where no perfume orchids occur except for uncommon ornamentals, led to the understanding that orchid bees don't need their orchid mutualists (Pemberton & Wheeler, 2006).
Passiflora leaves and petioles bear extrafloral nectaries that are well known for their support of ant bodyguards and other mutualists that benefit the plants (Smiley 1985; Apple & Feener 2001).
Extending along a dynamic continuum from antagonistic to cooperative and often involving elements of both antagonism and mutualism, symbioses involve pathogens, commensals, and mutualists interacting in myriad ways over the evolutionary history of the involved "partners.