Mycobacterium

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Mycobacterium

 

a genus of bacteria, related to actinomycetes; it differs from true bacteria in a number of ways. The young vegetative cells are rodlike (0.5–0.8 × 2.2 microns); they are capable of branching and acquiring V or Y shapes. In old cultures spherical cells predominate. Mycobacteria, which do not form endospores, are nonmotile, gram-positive, and strictly aerobic. They reproduce mainly by dividing and budding. Mycobacteria contain carotenoids, and, as a result, their colonies are often pigmented (yellow, orange, or red). Owing to their cell composition (including lipides and wax), some myco-bacteria, in contrast to other bacteria, are acid-fast.

Mycobacteria are widely distributed in soils and are active in the mineralization of plant remains. Some species of Mycobacterium are nitrogen-fixing microorganisms; others are capable of metabolizing the carbohydrates of petroleum and natural gas and, when cultured, accumulate protein, which is used for fodder and other purposes. Some species of Mycobacterium are pathogenic to humans (for example, mycobacteria are the causative agents of tuberculosis and leprosy).

A. A. IMSHENETSKII

References in periodicals archive ?
NADC's first sequencing project was on Mycobacterium paratuberculosis.
Part Three then looks at non-bacterial hazards such as viruses and parasites, as well as emerging potential 'hazards' such as Mycobacterium paratuberculosis and the increasingly important area of chronic disease.
Bauernfeind R, Benazzi S, Weiss R, Schliesser T, Willems H, Baljer G Molecular characterization of Mycobacterium paratuberculosis isolates from sheep, goats, and cattle by hybridization with a DNA probe to insertion element IS900.
They risk getting the Mycobacterium Paratuberculosis bug from grass infected by rabbit droppings.
At the request of the Advisory Committee for the Microbiological Safety of Food, the samples of milk will be assessed for the presence of mycobacterium paratuberculosis.
The bug, mycobacterium paratuberculosis, is one of several possible causes of the condition.

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