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a genus of bacteria, related to actinomycetes; it differs from true bacteria in a number of ways. The young vegetative cells are rodlike (0.5–0.8 × 2.2 microns); they are capable of branching and acquiring V or Y shapes. In old cultures spherical cells predominate. Mycobacteria, which do not form endospores, are nonmotile, gram-positive, and strictly aerobic. They reproduce mainly by dividing and budding. Mycobacteria contain carotenoids, and, as a result, their colonies are often pigmented (yellow, orange, or red). Owing to their cell composition (including lipides and wax), some myco-bacteria, in contrast to other bacteria, are acid-fast.

Mycobacteria are widely distributed in soils and are active in the mineralization of plant remains. Some species of Mycobacterium are nitrogen-fixing microorganisms; others are capable of metabolizing the carbohydrates of petroleum and natural gas and, when cultured, accumulate protein, which is used for fodder and other purposes. Some species of Mycobacterium are pathogenic to humans (for example, mycobacteria are the causative agents of tuberculosis and leprosy).


References in periodicals archive ?
Stabel JR, Steadham EM, Bolin CA (1997) Heat inactivation of Mycobacterium paratuberculosis in raw milk: are current pasteurization conditions effective?
IS900 PCR to detect Mycobacterium paratuberculosis in retail supplies of whole pasteurized cows' milk in England and Wales.
A modified ELISA for the detection of goats infected with Mycobacterium paratuberculosis.
A simple, rapid, and effective method for the extraction of Mycobacterium paratuberculosis DNA from fecal samples for polymerase chain reaction.
Diagnosis of paratuberculosis in dairy cattle, using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay for detection of antibodies against Mycobacterium paratuberculosis in milk.
Elk infected with Mycobacterium paratuberculosis may show non-specific clinical signs including poor weight gain and poor shedding of hair coat and just prior to death rapid weight loss and diarrhea may occur (Smits, 1991).
Interactions between Mycobacterium paratuberculosis and the bovine immune system.
Therefore, appropriate hygienic measures are critical to safeguard human population against meat- borne Mycobacterium paratuberculosis infection.
Research has found that Mycobacterium paratuberculosis (MAP) can survive pasteurisation.
Mycobacterium paratuberculosis is related to, but different from, the organism that causes cattle tuberculosis.
The Government announced on Monday it was to test thousands of samples for mycobacterium paratuberculosis - which causes the rare Johne's correct intestinal disease in cattle.

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