mycotoxin

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Related to Mycotoxins: mycotoxicosis

Mycotoxin

Any of the mold-produced substances that may be injurious to vertebrates upon ingestion, inhalation, or skin contact. The diseases they cause, known as mycotoxicoses, need not involve the toxin-producing fungus. Diagnostic features characterizing mycotoxicoses are the following: the disease is not transmissible; drug and antibiotic treatments have little or no effect; in field outbreaks the disease is often seasonal; the outbreak is usually associated with a specific foodstuff; and examination of the suspected food or foodstuff reveals signs of fungal activity.

The earliest recognized mycotoxicoses were human diseases. Ergotism, or St. Anthony's fire, results from eating rye infected with Claviceps purpurea. Yellow rice disease, a complex of human toxicoses, is caused by several Penicillium islandicum mycotoxins. World attention was directed toward the mycotoxin problem with the discovery of the aflatoxins in England in 1961. The aflatoxins, a family of mycotoxins produced by Aspergillus flavus and A. parasiticus, can induce both acute and chronic toxicological effects in vertebrates. Aflatoxin B1, the most potent of the group, is toxic, carcinogenic, mutagenic, and teratogenic. Major agricultural commodities that are often contaminated by aflatoxins include corn, peanuts, rice, cottonseed, and various tree nuts. See Aflatoxin, Ergot and ergotism

mycotoxin

[′mī·kə‚täk·sən]
(mycology)
A toxin produced by a fungus.
References in periodicals archive ?
Presently, PSQCA has set standards only for aflatoxins (among mycotoxins) in certain commodities, but there are no any set standards for other mycotoxins particularly for ochratoxins.
One of the main organs affected by mycotoxins is the brain.
While much work remains to unravel the complete connections between different mycotoxins and their impacts on humans, researchers at RTL have isolated 15 that are strongly associated with indoor environments and human health concerns.
Not coincidentally, many Afghanis suffer from health problems that are possibly attributable to chronic exposure to mycotoxins.
The detection of fungi does not necessarily entail the presence of mycotoxins, since mycotoxins production depends on various factors such as presence of toxigenic fungi, chemical composition of the substrates, moisture content, temperature, relative humidity and time course of fungal growth (Roige et al.
Furthermore, presence of pathogenic and toxigenic fungi insinuates for further screening and analysis to control the fungal diseases and problems of mycotoxins in poultry and large animals.
CytoSorbents Corporation, a critical care immunotherapy leader using blood purification to treat deadly inflammation in critically-ill and cardiac surgery patients around the world, announced that it was awarded a two-year $999,996 Small Business Innovation Research (SBIR) Phase II contract to continue development of CytoSorb for fungal mycotoxin blood purification.
According to the company, mycotoxins derived from naturally-occurring fungi can be weaponized as highly toxic biological warfare agents.
Introduction: Mould sensitivities and Mycotoxins (produced by fungus or moulds) are becoming an increasing concern in many patients all over Australia especially in Queensland, NSW, SA and Victoria.
The effect of insects' infestation on wheat flour quantity and quality loss, fungal contamination and presence of mycotoxins was studied after two months of storage (25+-2degC and 65%RH).