mycotoxin

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Related to Mycotoxins: mycotoxicosis

Mycotoxin

Any of the mold-produced substances that may be injurious to vertebrates upon ingestion, inhalation, or skin contact. The diseases they cause, known as mycotoxicoses, need not involve the toxin-producing fungus. Diagnostic features characterizing mycotoxicoses are the following: the disease is not transmissible; drug and antibiotic treatments have little or no effect; in field outbreaks the disease is often seasonal; the outbreak is usually associated with a specific foodstuff; and examination of the suspected food or foodstuff reveals signs of fungal activity.

The earliest recognized mycotoxicoses were human diseases. Ergotism, or St. Anthony's fire, results from eating rye infected with Claviceps purpurea. Yellow rice disease, a complex of human toxicoses, is caused by several Penicillium islandicum mycotoxins. World attention was directed toward the mycotoxin problem with the discovery of the aflatoxins in England in 1961. The aflatoxins, a family of mycotoxins produced by Aspergillus flavus and A. parasiticus, can induce both acute and chronic toxicological effects in vertebrates. Aflatoxin B1, the most potent of the group, is toxic, carcinogenic, mutagenic, and teratogenic. Major agricultural commodities that are often contaminated by aflatoxins include corn, peanuts, rice, cottonseed, and various tree nuts. See Aflatoxin, Ergot and ergotism

mycotoxin

[′mī·kə‚täk·sən]
(mycology)
A toxin produced by a fungus.
References in periodicals archive ?
Toward ensuring global food safety, this symposium sponsored by the International Union of Pure and Applied Chemistry (IUPA) addressed the toxicological risks posed to consumers from such products as peanuts, olives, and red wine contaminated with naturally-occurring mycotoxins (e.
One mycotoxin that ARS researchers are keenly interested in is aflatoxin--named for the A.
In a natural setting, moist, densely cellulosic material is scattered, and mycotoxins produced by the fungi simply diffuse into the air.
For instance, ingestion of aflotoxin B1, the most well-known and studied mycotoxin, is known to cause liver cancer.
Dr David Miller said: "Unlike bacterial poisoning, which makes you sick today, mycotoxins have long-term effects from exposure.
The term 'toxic mold' doesn't make any sense because almost all molds under certain growing circumstances are able to make chemicals which are known as mycotoxins," he said.
Certain molds, such as stachybotrys, aspergillus and penicillium, are capable of producing toxic compounds called mycotoxins.
Many molds produce mycotoxins and there are more than 300 known mycotoxins.
One of the categories of mycotoxins we see in some regions of the country affects stored grains and silages, and also hay," said Kate Jacques, director of nutrition for Alltech, a Kentucky-based company specializing in animal nutrition products.
Aflatoxins are part of a group of naturally occurring toxins called mycotoxins produced by moulds on foods such as nuts.