Anglo-Mysore Wars

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Anglo-Mysore Wars

 

waged in the last four decades of the 18th century by the British East India Company to conquer the principality of Mysore (India).

The first Anglo-Mysore War (1767–69) began with an invasion of Mysore by the troops of the company and its protege Nawab of Karnata. The Mysore army was led by their ruler, Haidar Ali, who successfully took the English army from the rear. By the peace treaty of Madras (1769) both parties renounced the territories they had conquered from each other and concluded a defensive alliance.

In the second Anglo-Mysore War (1780–84), Mysore was allied with Hyderabad and the Maratha. From 1782, after the death of Haidar Ali, the Mysore army was led by his son, Tipu Sultan. The successes of Tipu Sultan, who had been aided by the French, came to nothing because of the betrayal of his allies and the conclusion of the Treaty of Versailles (1783) between England and France. By the peace treaty of Mangalore, the enemies returned the lands and prisoners they had captured.

In the third Anglo-Mysore War (1790–92), the English succeeded in drawing the troops of the Maratha and of Hyderabad into the battle against Mysore. However, the situation of the British troops was so serious that in 1791 Governor-General Cornwallis came from Bengali to lead them. He managed to mobilize all the English forces and move them on Seringapatam, the capital of Mysore. Tipu Sultan was forced to sign the Seringapatam peace treaty of 1792 and surrender almost half his principality to the allies as well as paying an indemnity. In the fourth Anglo-Mysore War (1799), Seringapatam was taken by storm and Tipu Sultan killed. Mysore was turned into a vassal principality of the company.

REFERENCES

Antonova, K. A. Angliiskoe zavoevanie Indii v XVIII veke. Moscow, 1958.
Khan, M. H. History of Tipu Sultan. Calcutta, 1951.

K. A. ANTONOVA

References in periodicals archive ?
In the Fourth Mysore War in 1799, Tipu's forces were hugely outnumbered.
By 1798 he had returned to India where he landed just in time for the start of the Fourth Mysore War, which kept him engaged in painting.
That same year he became governor general of Bengal and commander in chief of all British forces in India, where his army of about 20,000 defeated 40,000 troops under Tipu Sultan in the Third Mysore War.
He had heard of big palaces, forts and gardens built by Sultan who defeated British forces under Sir Hector Munro at the Battle of Pollilur in 1780 known as the Second Mysore War.
It played a vital role during Third Anglo- Mysore war that took place in A.
Widely advertised in advance of its publication, Munro's account of his experiences in India during the Second Mysore War (1780-84) was partly plagiarized from William Thomson's Memoirs of the Late War in Asia (1788), but it is significant in its own right as a portrait of powerful soldierly sentiments--masculine affective entanglements that undergird Britain's expanding imperial project and threaten the emergent racializations that also supported it (for notes on the charge of plagiarism, see English Review, 372-82; and "Caution to the Young Gentlemen of the Army").
Principal wars: Jacobite Rebellion (1745-1746); Seven Years' War (1756-1763); First Maratha War (1779-1782); Second Mysore War (1780-1783).
Two years later he returned to India where he landed just in time for the start of the Fourth Mysore War, which kept him engaged in painting.
True, there were instances of the typical perfidy for which the British are notorious, such as taking sides in the hostilities among local rulers, other excesses like Warren Hastings' extortions from the Raja of Banaras and the Begums of Oudh, the Mysore War, the Battle of Plassey and, ultimately, annexing India to the British Empire.
Tipu Sultan's reputation as a great warrior was sealed during the Second Mysore War in 1780 when he defeated British forces led by Sir Hector Munro at the Battle of Pollilur.
Principal wars: Russo-Turkish War (1768-1774); Second Mysore War (1780-1783); Maratha (Mahratta) campaigns (1790-1793).