Tabun

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tabun

(tä`bən), liquid chemical compound used as a nerve gasnerve gas,
any of several poison gases intended for military use, e.g., tabun, sarin, soman, and VX. Nerve gases were first developed by Germany during World War II but were not used at that time.
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. It boils at 240°C; with some decomposition. The liquid is colorless to brownish; its vapors have a fruity odor similar to that of bitter almonds. The liquid is absorbed through the skin, but the vapor is not. Although tabun is destroyed by its reaction with bleaching powder, the poisonous gas cyanogen chloride is produced. Chemically, tabun is cyanodimethylaminoethoxyphosphine oxide.

Tabun

 

(Russian, of Turkic origin), a herd of horses or camels assembled by man. A tabun contains animals of the same sex and age, for example, 80–120 mares with colts born in the current year or 120–150 head of young stock, with mares and colts separated. It may be formed for year-round livestock maintenance (in regions where herd horse breeding is practiced) or only for the pasturing period.


Tabun

 

also ethyl phosphorodimethylamidocyanidate [(CH3)2N(C2H5O)P(O)CN]; a colorless liquid with a melting point of – 50°C, a boiling point of about 230°C (with decomposition), a volatility (at 20°C and with maximum concentration) of 0.6 milligram per liter (mg/l), and a density of 1.087 g/cm3 (20°C). Tabun dissolves in water to a concentration of approximately 12 percent; it is readily soluble in organic solvents.

The compound is slowly hydrolyzed by water; it reacts vigorously with aqueous solutions of alkalies, ammonia, and amines, a characteristic used in degassing. The products from the degassing of Tabun are toxic because they contain cyanides. Tabun is prepared through a sequence of reactions of phosphorous oxychloride (POCl3) with dimethylamine hydrochloride, ethyl alcohol, and KCN.

Tabun is a war gas that affects the nervous system. The lethal concentration of Tabun in air is 0.4 mg/l (1 min). When brought into contact with the skin in liquid form, the lethal concentration is 50–70 mg/kg. In a concentration of 0.01 mg/l (2 min), Tabun induces pronounced miosis. Gas masks are used to protect against Tabun. The compound was first prepared just before World War II but was not used in the war.

REFERENCE

Franke, S., P. Franz, and W. Warnke. Khimiia otravliaiushchikh veshchestv, vols. 1–2. Moscow, 1973. (Translated from German.)

tabun

[′tä‚bu̇n]
(organic chemistry)
(CH3)2NP(O)(C2H5O)(CN) A toxic liquid with a boiling point of 240°C; soluble in organic solvents; used as a nerve gas.