Na-Dene Languages

(redirected from Na-Dene language)

Na-Dene Languages

 

a family of American Indian languages in Alaska, Canada, and the western and southern USA, including (1) Haida (Queen Charlotte Islands and southern Alaska) and the Dene-Tlingit languages—Tlingit, or Koluschan (Alaska and British Columbia); and (2) the Eyak-Athapaskan language group, which consists of Eyak (Alaska) and the Athapaskan languages.

The Na-Dene languages have a rich system of consonants, including glottalized, lateral fricative, and uvular consonants. The well-developed system of affricates in some Na-Dene languages includes the dental affricates tθ, ţθ, and , and also lateral affricates. Tlingit and some of the Athapaskan languages (Apache, Kutchin, Sarsi, Chipewyan) have phonological tones. The Na-Dene languages are agglutinative, with analytical elements (for example, in the expression of case relations), partly with internal inflection (in the verb in Haida and several Athapaskan languages). The inclusion within the verbal word (in some languages) of lexical or incompletely grammaticized morphemes together with the root can be interpreted as incorporation. The word preserves clear traces of a change from a combination of words to a morphological whole. A system of noun classes expressed by verbal prefixes (such as a classification of objects primarily on the basis of form and external similarity) is well developed in some languages, among them Haida.

REFERENCES

Boas, F. Handbook of American Indian Languages, part 1. Washington, 1911.
Pinnow, H. J. Grundzüge einer historischen Lautlehre des Tlingit. Wiesbaden, 1966.

A. B. DOLGOPOL’SKII

Mentioned in ?
References in periodicals archive ?
Some previous studies of human migration into the Americas have focused on two types of languages found in North America: the Na-Dene language family, including Navajo, Apache and Tlingit, and non-Na-Dene languages, including Algonquin, Ojibwe and Chippewa.
The second and third migrations have left an impact only in Arctic populations that speak Eskimo-Aleut languages and in the Canadian Chipewyan who speak a Na-Dene language.
A proposed language family known as the Dene-Yeniseian suggests that there are common language elements between the North American Na-Dene languages and the Yeniseian languages of Central Siberia.
The Dene-Yeniseian hypothesis refers to the theory of some linguists that Ket, a language from the Yeneseian family of languages used in Central Siberia, is genealogically related to Na-Dene languages, which are used throughout parts of northwestern North America.
Linguists have long held that both the Yeniseian languages in Siberia and the, Na-Dene languages in North America have no known relatives among other languages in the world.