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, ancient empire of Mesopotamia. The name is sometimes given to the whole civilization of S Mesopotamia, including the states established by the city rulers of Lagash, Akkad (or Agade), Uruk, and Ur in the 3d millennium B.C.
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the founder of the New Babylonian Empire and the Chaldean dynasty; ruled from 626 to 605 B.C. In 626, Nabopolassar led a rebellion of the Babylonians against Assyria, under whose power Babylonia had been since 729. Late in 626 he seized Babylon, in 620 Uruk, and in 615 Nippur. In 614 he concluded an alliance with the Median king Cyaxares; together they vanquished Assyria in 609.