Navarre

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Navarre

(nəvär`), Span. Navarra (nävä`rä), province (1990 pop. 527,318), N Spain, bordering on France, between the W Pyrenees and the Ebro River. Pamplona is the capital.

Land and Economy

Navarre province forms the autonomous region of Navarra. The beautiful mountain slopes have extensive cattle pastures and vast forests that yield hardwoods, which are economically important. The fertile valleys produce sugar beets, cereals, and vegetables; vineyards are important in the Ebro valley. Hydroelectric energy and entrepreneurship have resulted in considerable industrialization since the 1950s. Manufactures include processed foods and metal parts.

History

The population of northern and western Navarre is largely of Basque stock, and the early history of the region is that of the BasquesBasques
, people of N Spain and SW France. There are about 2 million Basques in the three Basque provs. and Navarre, Spain; some 250,000 in Labourd, Soule, and Lower Navarre, France; and communities of various sizes in Central and South America and other parts of the world.
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. The pass of RoncesvallesRoncesvalles
, Fr. Roncevaux, mountain pass (alt. 3,468 ft/1,057 m), in the Pyrenees, between Pamplona (Spain) and Saint-Jean-Pied-de-Port (France). Tradition has made it the scene of the death of the hero Roland.
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, which leads from France to Navarre, made the region strategically important early in its history. The Basques defended themselves successfully against the Moorish invaders as well as against the Franks; the domination of Charlemagne, who conquered Navarre in 778, was short-lived. In 824 the Basque chieftain Iñigo Aritza was chosen king of Pamplona, which was expanded under his successors and became known as the kingdom of Navarre. It reached its zenith under Sancho III (reigned 1000–1035), who married the heiress of Castile and ruled over nearly all of Christian Spain.

On Sancho's death the Spanish kingdoms were again divided (into Navarre, Aragón, and Castile). The kingdom of Navarre then comprised the present province of Navarre, the Basque Provinces (which were later lost to Castile), and, north of the Pyrenees, the district called Lower Navarre, now a part of France. In 1305, Navarre passed to King Philip IV of France. Navarre stayed with the French crown until the death (1328) of Charles IV, when it passed to Charles's niece, whose son, Charles II (Charles the Bad), played an important part in the Hundred Years War and in the French civil unrest of the time. In 1479, Navarre passed, through marriage, to the counts of Foix and then to the house of Albret. Ferdinand V (Ferdinand the Catholic), after defeating Jean d'Albret, annexed most of Navarre in 1515. The area north of the Pyrenees (Lower Navarre) remained an independent kingdom until it was incorporated (1589) into the French crown when Henry III of Navarre became King Henry IV of France. It was united with Béarn into a French province.

Until the French Revolution the kings of France carried the additional title king of Navarre. Since the rest of Navarre was in Spanish hands, the kings of Spain also carried (until 1833) the title king of Navarre. During that period Navarre enjoyed a special status within the Spanish monarchy; it had its own cortes, taxation system, and separate customs laws. In 1833, Navarre became the chief stronghold of the CarlistsCarlists,
partisans of Don Carlos (1788–1855) and his successors, who claimed the Spanish throne under the Salic law of succession, introduced (1713) by Philip V. The law (forced on Philip by the War of the Spanish Succession to avoid a union of the French and Spanish
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 but recognized Isabella II as queen in 1839. As a reward for their loyalty in the Spanish Civil War, Franco allowed the Navarrese to maintain their ancient fueros, which were charters handed down by the crown outlining a system of self-government.

Navarre

 

(Spanish, Navarra), a historical region and province in northern Spain. Area, 10,400 sq km; population, 464,900 (1970). Principal city and capital, Pamplona.

Most of the territory of Navarre is occupied by the southern spurs of the western Pyrenees (Anie Peak, 2,504 m), covered with broad-leaved deciduous forests; descending to the south, the mountains turn into a treeless plateau (400–500 m). Only a small part of the region is under cultivation. Crops of commercial importance include wheat, sugar beets, grapes, vegetables, and fruit. Livestock raising (cattle and sheep) and lumbering are developed. The traditional branches of industry are woodworking, paper, food (including sugar and wine), and leather footwear. After World War II (1939–45) the metallurgical, metalworking, and chemical industries were developed.


Navarre

 

(Spanish, Navarra), a medieval kingdom in the Pyrenees region with its capital at Pamplona (905–1512).

Little is known of Navarre’s early history. In the mid-ninth century the county of Navarre achieved independence in its struggle against the Moors and the Franks. The first king of Navarre about whom there is reliable information is Sancho García (reigned 905–925). The king of Navarre Sancho III the Great (reigned 1000–35) successfully seized control of the northern Iberian Peninsula, but as a result of the division of the state among his heirs, Navarre lost all the annexed territories. From 1076 to 1134, Navarre was under the rule of Aragón. From 1234 to 1284 and from 1328 to 1512 the royal throne of Navarre was occupied by French counts, and from 1285 to 1328 by French kings.

Navarre was an economically backward state with poorly developed cities and with peasant clan communities in the mountain regions; from before the 15th century to the early 16th the peasants in Navarre continued to be personally dependent. In 1512 most of Navarre (Upper Navarre) was conquered by Ferdinand of Aragón and became part of Spain. The northeastern part of Navarre (Lower Navarre) remained a formally independent kingdom until 1589, at which time it was annexed by France (when King Henry of Navarre became the French king Henry IV).

Navarre

a former kingdom of SW Europe: established in the 9th century by the Basques; the parts south of the Pyrenees joined Spain in 1515 and the N parts passed to France in 1589. Capital: Pamplona