Nagorno-Karabakh


Also found in: Dictionary, Wikipedia.
Related to Nagorno-Karabakh: Transnistria

Nagorno-Karabakh

(nəgôr`nə-kərəbäkh), region (1990 pop. 192,000), 1,699 sq mi (4,400 sq km), SE Azerbaijan, between the Caucasus and the Karabakh range. Khankendi (the capital, formerly Stepanakert) and Shusha are the chief towns. The region has numerous mineral springs as well as deposits of lithographic stone, marble, and limestone. Farming and grazing are important and there are various light industries. The population of the region is mainly Armenian, with Azeri, Russian, and Kurdish minorities; much of the pre-1990 Azeri population fled when Armenian nationalists began their uprising in the early 1990s.

A part of Caucasian Albania called Artsakh, the area was taken by Armenia in the 1st cent. A.D. and by the Arabs in the 7th cent. The region was renamed Karabakh (or Karabagh) in the 13th cent. In the early 17th cent., it passed to the Persians, who permitted local autonomy, and in the mid-18th cent. the Karabakh khanate was formed. Karabakh alone was ceded to Russia in 1805; the khanate passed to the Russians by the Treaty of Gulistan in 1813. In 1822 the Karabakh khanate was dissolved and the area became a Russian province. The Nagorno-Karabakh (Mountain-Karabakh) Autonomous Region was established in 1923. The autonomous status of the region was abolished in 1989. In the late 1980s and early 1990s, the region became a focal point in a war between the republics of Armenia and Azerbaijan, as Armenian nationalists demanded the inclusion of the region in Armenia. By the end of 1993, Armenians had won control of most of the region as well as neighboring parts of Azerbaijan to the west and south; some 30,000 died in the fighting. An unofficial cease-fire was reached in 1994 with Russian negotiation; it has largely held, but there have been recurring clashes since 1994, mostly on a smaller scale but sometimes intense. Nagorno-Karabakh's parliament declared (1996) the region independent, and ten years later voters approved a new constitution that affirmed that move; neither action was internationally recognized. A final political resolution to the situation has not been negotiated, but the region is now effectively part of Armenia.

References in periodicals archive ?
Behind this crisis is the continued occupation of Nagorno-Karabakh and the seven surrounding Azerbaijani districts by Armenia.
Earlier, the co-chairmen held a meeting with Germany's Federal Minister for Foreign Affairs Frank-Walter Steinmeier in Berlin to discuss the Armenian-Azerbaijani Nagorno-Karabakh conflict on the eve of Germany's OSCE chairmanship.
This project is an extension of my previous research in Azerbaijan and focuses on how Azeri IDP/refugee women reflect on their experiences as refugees and internally displaced persons from the Nagorno-Karabakh War.
Despite facing strong international pressure, the Armenian and Azerbaijani leaders have failed to agree on the basic principles of ending the Nagorno-Karabakh conflict put forward by Russia, the United States and France in 2011.
The recurring violence around Nagorno-Karabakh, a mountainous majority Armenian area, underlined the risk of broader conflict in the South Caucasus where vital oil and natural gas flow from the Caspian region to Europe.
Today marks 20 years since the Nagorno-Karabakh ceasefire agreement.
He said that the airport, in the Armenian-occupied Nagorno-Karabakh, violates Azerbaijan's airspace and the rules of international law.
In the first section of this article, I set the broader context with an overview of Nagorno-Karabakh, a social historical account of Armenian-Azeri ethnic conflict, and a review of significant events in the Nagorno-Karabakh War.
Indeed, there is a growing fear that a settlement of the Nagorno-Karabakh dispute is more distant now, because Turkey's public backing has raised Azerbaijan's expectations, while some Armenians fear collusion between neighbors out to railroad them into an unsustainable agreement.
While inter-ethnic violence in this region had increased at an alarming rate during the late 1980s, the declared secession of Nagorno-Karabakh sparked an all-out war between the Azeris and Armenians.
The first deputy foreign minister of Iran Alireza Sheik Attar initiated IranCOs active participation in the settlement of the Nagorno-Karabakh conflict during his visit to Baku in mid-June.
Numerous accounts have been written about the conflict between Armenia and Azerbaijan over the enclave of Nagorno-Karabakh.