Nakh Languages

(redirected from Nakh)

Nakh Languages

 

(Veinakh languages), a group of Caucasian (Ibero-Caucasian) languages that includes the new written languages Chechen and Ingush and the unwritten Bats language. Some scholars regard the Nakh languages as a subgroup of the Nakho-Dagestanian languages.

The Nakh languages are distinguished from the other Ibero-Caucasian languages by a more complex vowel system. Special grammatical features include the presence of an ergative construction, a complex case system, and the category of grammatical classes, whose markers are added to certain verbs, such as Chechen v-u or y-u,”to eat” (male and female speaker, respectively), and also to qualitative adjectives, adverbial forms and auxiliary words (postpositions), and the numeral 4 (d-i; v-i’, y-i and b-i’). There are four class markers(v, b, y, and d), combinations of which are used to form six grammatical classes in Chechen and Ingush in the singular and plural, and eight in Bats. The verb has grammatical categories of class, tense, mood, aspect, and singularity and plurality of subject or object. A personal conjugation has developed in Bats: vuit’-as,”I go”; vuit’-aq,”you go.” Of the Nakh languages, only Chechen is marked by dialect differentiation.

REFERENCES

Desheriev, Iu. D. Batsbiiskii iazyk. Moscow, 1953.
Desheriev, Iu. D. Sravnitel’no-istoricheskaia grammatika nakhskikh iazykov i problemy proiskhozhdeniia i istoricheskogo razvitiia gorskikh kavkazskikh narodov. Groznyi, 1963.
Mal’sagov, Z. K. Grammatika ingushskogo iazyka, 2nd ed. Groznyi, 1963.

IU. D. DESHERIEV

References in periodicals archive ?
Companies profiled in this DB Polyester Filament market research report include Raj Rayon industries, Wellknown Polyesters, KORTEKS, Daehan, Welspun Syntex, Thai Polyester, Jeil Synthetic, Jiwarajka Textile, Nafis Nakh, Polyfin Canggih, Zhejiang Huaxin, HangZhou Siyuan, Zhejiang Huilong, Zhejiang GuXianDao and Fineyarn Corporation.
Dressed in a traditional nauwari sari and wearing nakh nose jewellery, the 13-year-old helped welcome the guests by putting perfume on their hands and sprinkling rosewater.
Nakh, said: " We will conduct an in- depth inquiry.
Both groups belong to a wider Vainakh group, which encompasses people of the North Caucasus who use the Nakh language.
The Bosnian delegation visited Zanjan`s industrial centers such as Iran Transfo (transformer manufacturer), Pars Switch (manufacturer of high tension switches), Nakh Tire (manufacturer of tire yarn), Khorramdarreh Agro-Industry, Likus Foodstuffs and International Exhibitions Company.
Anne Wardwell had identified these so-called panni tartarici as drawloom silks woven with gold, and Allsen connects these cloths to the textiles called nasij in the Arabic sources and nakh in Persian, generically meaning woven stuff or textile and then more narrowly denoting a cloth of silk and gold.